Table of Contents

TIP: Use the bullet (•) in the search for headings.

• Acknowledgements

• Welcome Letter from the President of HMUG


Section I — • About HMUG

               I.a.    • Organization

               I.b.    • Officers and Volunteers

               I.c.     • HMUG Publications

               I.d.    • Meetings

               I.e.    • Library

               I.f.     • The Hotline

               I.g.    • Telecommunications

               I.h.    • Activities

               I.i.     • Special Interest Groups

               I.j.     • Tutorials


Section II - • Bits and Slices

               II.a.   • By-Laws of the Huntsville Macintosh User’s Group

               II.b.   • Tips and Shortcuts

               II.c.   • Newsletter Advertising Rates

               II.d.   • Access to Services

               II.e.   • A Brief Communications Tutorial

               II.f.   • The Macintosh Family

               II.g.   • Virus Management on the Macintosh

               II.h.   • Glossary of Terms

• Acknowledgements

Putting together a handbook which provides information on a variety of subjects requires the input and skills of many people. The membership of the Huntsville Macintosh Users Group is a talented group of people. Everyone did their part by creating products, researching, typing, lending support when required, and even editing.

I will not try to mention all the names here; however, I salute all the dedicated members who have provided input to this manual. I especially would like to thank the Washington Apple Pi, Ltd., for their electronic files which provided the basis for some of this handbook.

Welcome Letter from the President of HMUG

Dear New Member:

Welcome! Over the years, HMUG has helped many computer users to get more from their equipment. Yet an important objective has always been the individual. You matter. I think you will find when you reach out to try some of HMUG’s services that help is there for you. Our members are quite varied. They range from the very young to retired. They include ‘hackers’ and business people, men and women. Our members are blue collar, white collar and T-shirted. We like to think of ourselves as a family organization, offering many things to our diverse membership.

HMUG can help you in numerous ways, many of which are discussed in this Handbook. Among the most important are our: reference library, monthly formal and informal meetings (with question and answer sessions and interesting, informative speakers), monthly Newsletter filled with how-to articles and product reviews, volunteer experts in a host of areas, and an extensive Public Domain Software Library. Plus, we have an affiliated electronic Bulletin Board. Any or all of these may help you get more from your computer.

HMUG is dedicated to the distribution of information about the Macintosh. Our meetings are organized to provide members a forum to exchange information and ideas and to promote better use, understanding and interest in Macintosh computer arts and science. The exchange of information among HMUG members is normally conducted in an informal forum. Presentations or demonstrations on subjects of interest or new products are included in every meeting agenda. To this end, our club has established several programs to enhance the exchange of information.

As you may know, we are basically a volunteer organization dedicated to helping one another and our community to learn about personal computers. While there are some activities that require technical skills, other simply require a little time and patience. If you want to help, call another member. If you give a little of your time, you will probably get more out of being a member. Regardless of whether you become a very active member or simply enjoy reading the Newsletter every month, welcome. We are glad to have you!

The main activity of HMUG is biweekly meetings on the second and fourth Saturday of each month. Our formal business meeting is held at the Huntsville Public Library on the second Saturday. The informal meeting is held at BDM International Inc., 950 Explorer Boulevard, Cummings Research Park (West), Huntsville. Meetings are scheduled from 10 to 12 noon.

To gain the most from the club, members and guests are encouraged to express freely their concerns and ideas on observations, experiences, or problems which may impact on their use of the Macintosh. Comments are also solicited on club program and events. Like anything, to get the most out of it you must get personally involved and make your requirements and desires known. The club is always looking for ways to improve our programs. If you have an area of special interest you would like to share with the Group, please feel free to bring it to our attention and get on the agenda to present it to the club. HMUG is dedicated to serve you the member, and this can only be accomplished if you actively participate in your club.

Most Sincerely,

George Leach, President


I. • About HMUG

This Handbook has been produced to familiarize new members of the Huntsville Macintosh Users Group (HMUG) with the many activities that go on within the organization. Services, meeting dates and locations, procedures, etc., may have changed since the printing of this guide. Please watch your monthly Newsletter for updated information. If you ever have questions about how a service works, who is doing what, or when it’s being done, please call one of the officers for more details.

Interested Macintosh users are encouraged to come to our HMUG meetings to see how our club operates and participate in our program before joining. We know once you have seen what we can offer, you will be hooked like the rest of us.

How to join HMUG: People can join or renew their membership in the Huntsville Macintosh User’s Group by coming to one of our meetings and paying directly, or by sending a check to the treasurer. See the other bulletins for information on meeting times and places.

To Join the Huntsville MUG by mail - send $20 ($22 for family membership) to:

       Amy Shelton

       103 Scarlet Oak Circle

       Harvest, AL 35749

Include your name, address, and anything else that you think will help us serve you, such as machine type, level of expertise, and whether you’d be interested in helping out. This last item is important as the User’s Group consists solely of volunteers helping others, and we can always use another volunteer.

You can also leave a message on the ‘General’ message base of the <TBD> BBS (select ‘M’ from the Main Menu, ‘G’ from the Public Message Area Menu, and ‘E’ from the Message Menu respectively). If you’d like more information on the <TBD> BBS operation or log-on procedures, see Section I.g, Telecommunications.

I.a. • Organization

HMUG is a non-profit, educational, and social organization for computer enthusiasts. This guide describes HMUG services, activities and organization. Success of the club depends on the volunteer efforts of its members in serving on committees, chairing Special Interest Groups, and helping out with club events.

HMUG offers many different ways for you to improve your understanding of how microcomputers work and how you can get the most out of your particular model. This section will briefly cover each of the services and activities HMUG presently offers. These services are now available to you, our fellow member. If you are in need of a service that is not listed here, or you believe that our membership services should be expanded, check with an officer of the club, the service may have started since this was written, or you may be able to assist in getting it going. We are always interested in the expanding needs of our members, and all of our activities depend on volunteers. If you would like to get a project started, or would like to lend a hand with an existing service, call us and get involved.

HMUG business is conducted according to the approved By-Laws which are periodically reviewed and updated. The HMUG Bylaws are included at the end of this guide.

Staff and Volunteers: All of the services offered to the members of HMUG are made possible by the committed efforts of many volunteers. For example:

• The Disk Librarian, along with many volunteer helpers, is responsible for collecting, categorizing, cataloging and duplication of Public Domain and Shareware software programs.

• The Editor with the assistance of several others is responsible for monitoring all aspects of the Newsletter.

• The � Ambassador is our interface with Apple ® and the Macintosh User Group community and their many services and publications.

I.b. • Officers and Volunteers

The HMUG Executive Committee consists of five elected officers: President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, and Programs, supported by appointed volunteers. The current officers and principal volunteers are:

Elected Officers

President:................ George Leach

Vice President:......... Bob Doehrman

Secretary:................ Lee Jones

Treasurer:................ Amy Shelton

Programs:................ John Celestian

............................... Jackie Dannenberg

Appointed Officers

Membership:............ Amy Shelton

Librarians:............... Lipmon Moy

............................... Bob Doehrman

............................... George Leach

Newsletter:............... Ann Houser

Publisher:................ ( Vacant )

Publicity:................. Gloria Guay

Apple Ambassador:.. Frank Baird

Election of officers is by secret ballot from a slate presented by a Nominating Committee and/or nominations from the floor by the general membership. Per the Huntsville Macintosh User’s Group Bylaws, elections are held in February. Nominees must be willing to serve in the capacity or the name is withdrawn.

Duties of the Officers

The president appoints all committees and is an ex-officio member of all committees.

The vice-president performs in the absence or disability of the president, and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to the restrictions on, the president.

The secretary keeps minutes of all membership and executive officer meetings. He maintains a file of all official correspondence of the HMUG, conducts official correspondence of the Group and performs such other duties as may be designated by the Executive Committee.

The treasurer is responsible for financial records and accounts of HMUG. The treasurer keeps and maintains adequate and correct books of account showing the receipts and disbursements of HMUG with such depositories as are designated by the Executive Committee.

The programs officer is responsible for arranging for programs for the monthly formal meeting and announcing the planned program in the monthly newsletter.

Appointed Officers or Volunteers

The President appoints such volunteers as deemed necessary to support the normal functions and special activities of the Group. These appointed officers serve at the discretion of the Executive Committee for the term of their office or until completion of the activity. These appointed positions are:

• Membership Chairman

• Librarian (Software and Book Libraries)

• Newsletter

• Publisher

• Publicity

• Apple Ambassador

I.c. • HMUG Publications

The HMUG Newsletter

Who gets the Newsletter? All HMUG members receive the Newsletter. Copies of the Newsletter are available for interested non-members, if requested.

What is in the Newsletter?

• roster of elected and volunteer officers

• minutes from the last formal meeting

• advertisement rates

• vendor advertisements

• for sale items

• Apple Ambassador’s Report

• <TBD>BBS Report

• President’s Report

• articles from other Macintosh newsletter

• time, date, location of future meetings

When is the Newsletter published?  Monthly.

Where is it distributed?  The  Newsletter is available for pick up at the formal or informal meeting closest to its print date. If members cannot attend the meeting, it is mailed to them.

Why is there a newsletter?  The Newsletter is our primary means of distributing information to all HMUG members. It also serves as a hard copy record of the formal minutes of our meetings.

How is it produced?  Input: Articles, ads, etc., must be submitted to the editor according to the schedule shown. Information can be delivered electronically (<TBD>BBS), by diskette, or by hard copy. The Newsletter is produced using PageMaker on a Macintosh SE. Output: The diskette containing the completed newsletter is given to the publisher who produces a laser hard copy. The “master” is used for reproduction.

How can I become involved in the newsletter?  Contributions to the Newsletter are encouraged. All members are invited to submit articles. In other words, ANYONE can contribute!

The most popular service HMUG members enjoy is the monthly Newsletter. Each issue, which is provided to all members as a benefit of membership, contains pages devoted to a wide range of computer subjects.

Submitting Items for Publication: The editor solicits articles on any subject relating to computers: problems solved and those in need of solutions, reviews of hardware and software you have purchased and think others should buy or avoid and why, humorous articles, and articles on interesting applications you have discovered. You do not need to be an expert to write an article. Many of the best articles are written by novices who are sharing their frustrations and triumphs in getting the darned things to work in the first place.

Submitting an article for publication is very simple. The first step is to write one. Then submit the article on paper or on disk. Alternatively, you may be able to send your article to the Editor via the <TBD> bulletin board, or directly via modem. The Editor appreciates all articles in any format and encourages everyone to write something, no matter how short.

Classified Advertising: The Newsletter also contains a section where members can place classified advertisements.

Display Advertising: The Newsletter also publishes commercial advertising. Many advertisers offer special discounts or deals for HMUG members — read their ads carefully. When you patronize those businesses, be sure you let them know you saw their ad in the HMUG Newsletter. If you would like to run a display advertisement in the Newsletter, contact the Editor for more information.

Newsletter Distribution: The editors attempt to make distribution during a club meeting to help defray some postage costs.

Back Issues of the Newsletter: Limited numbers of back issues of the Newsletter are available from the Editor.

Other Publications

Member Handbook- HMUG offers a few other publications to serve its members. One of these is the Handbook, which you are now reading.

Membership Directory - HMUG also publishes a Membership Directory to help you stay in touch with each other. It lists the names, telephone numbers and cities (but not street addresses) of our members who have given permission to have this information published in the directory. The Directory is listed two ways, one is arranged alphabetically and the other is by zip code. We ask our members not to distribute this list to non-members or use it for commercial solicitations.

Macintosh Catalog Disk - At least once a year we publish a Macintosh Catalog Disk listing all the software available in our Macintosh disk library. The disk usually sells for around $1.00 (or you can copy it to your own disk) and includes an alphabetical list of all files, as well as descriptions of most of the files.

Special Interest Groups (SIGs) are set up, as needed, to cover specific topics, some are machine specific, some are program specific, and still others are industry specific. There is no additional charge to participate in a SIG, and you are welcome to attend as many SIG meetings as you would like. See the SIG Chairman for details on meeting times and more details.

I.d. • Meetings

The Huntsville Macintosh Users Group (HMUG) was formed to assist its members in getting the most out of their Mac. We do that by exchanging information and arranging demonstrations of new hardware and software at regularly scheduled meetings, and managing a large library of public domain software. These meetings also provide a channel for novice users to get their questions answered by more experienced MacUsers.

When HMUG Meets: The HMUG holds two scheduled meetings each month. The meeting on the 2nd Saturday (10 AM) is a formal business meeting, including a program, etc., while the 4th Saturday meeting is informal, consisting of swapping MacTips, exchanging public domain software (really! No commercial stuff!), and of course a program or demonstration. Often tutorials are presented at the meetings. Send a message to Frank Baird, George Leach, or Lee Jones if you’d like more information.

Where HMUG Meets: The HMUG meets on the 2nd Saturday of each month at 10 AM to 12 AM at the Huntsville public library. The informal meeting, held at BDM in West Research Park, also runs from 10 AM to 12 AM.

Second Saturday of the Month

Huntsville Public Library

915 Monroe St.

Fourth Saturday of the Month


Cummings Research Park West

To get to the informal meeting held at BDM, head west on Bradford Drive until it ends, then turn left (South) onto Explorer Blvd. Then take the first left into the BDM driveway. Bradford Drive is the new interchange on Rideout (South of University & North of Madison Pike). Many of you will want to get on Rideout to get to Bradford.

General Meeting: The largest of HMUG’s monthly meetings is the General Meeting, usually held on the second Saturday of each month. The focus of most General Meetings is a program that consists of a speaker or a panel discussion, then a free-form Questions and Answer session. For many members, the highlight of these meetings is the Q&A session. This session provides an opportunity to ask questions and exchange comments and ideas with a large cross section of users as well as professionals in the industry.

Most General Meetings follow this agenda:

Disk Sales

9:45 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.

Business Meeting

10:00 a.m. - 10:45 a.m.


10:45 a.m. - 11:00 a.m.

Macintosh Q&A Session

11:00 a.m. - 11:15 a.m.

Scheduled Demonstration Program(s)

11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.

Occasionally, we alter the agenda of these meetings to accommodate a special presentation, such as when significant new products are introduced, when topics (such as music or games) are not computer-specific, or when nationally recognized figures come to speak.

The HMUG sponsors many different programs designed to serve the general and specific interests of the micro-computing community. Our program schedule is planned to coincide with the Club Officer’s term of office. Here was our proposed schedule for 1990, the actual schedule was adjusted to meet the needs of the guest speakers or special club activities. Both the formal and informal programs are shown.

July 14,1990 — Program Developers’ Workshop

July 28, 1990 — Games Demonstrations

July 28, 1990 — Flight Simulator Demonstration

August 11, 90 — Print Spoolers

August 25, 1990 — PostScript - What is it and why?

August 25, 1990 — QuickDraw - What is it and why?

August 25, 1990  Type Align

September 8, 1990 — Import Data  from IBM Clone

September 22, 1990 — Swap Shop

September 22, 1990 — Oracle Video

October 13, 1990 — Explanation of a Simple HyperCard Program

October 27, 1990 — Training Session

November 10, 1990 — Watch the Newsletter Go Together in PageMaker

November 24, 1990 — FileMaker File from MacDraw and Exel Data

December 8, 1990 — Graphics Tutorial and Demonstration

December 22, 1990 — No Meeting

January 12, 1991 — Preparations for IEEE Fair

January 26, 1991 — System 7.0 Features

February 23, 1991 — MIDI Demonstration

March 9, 1991 — My Favorite Desk Accessories

March 9, 1991 — HMUG Elections

March 23, 1991 — Voyager Demo

TBD — WINGZ Demonstration

If you’re like most new HMUG members, we can predict two things:

You’re going to be amazed at the amount of expertise that people in the club have about personal computers, and . . .

. . . yet it seems at times that those people speak an incomprehensible language not meant to be understood by ordinary humans.

The Question and Answer sessions at monthly HMUG meetings represent one of the most useful services members provide to each other. Some of the most knowledgeable computer users in the area — indeed, in the country—field questions from the audience on any computer-related subject. Occasionally even these experts are stumped, but there will often be someone in the audience who knows the answer to the questions or can direct you to someone who can answer it.

Coping with Techno-Speak

Welcome to Techno-speak. Every field has its own jargon; computers are one of the worst. We have included a glossary of computer terms in this Handbook, which we hope will help.

But just as a French phrase book is of little use in the middle of a Parisian traffic jam, a glossary of computer terms can be of only limited assistance when someone is trying to explain at a Mac Q&A session how the stack sniffer ROM keeps the application heap from colliding with the stack during a segment load.

There is an overwhelming tendency when faced with a difficult question to which one knows the answer—just to answer the question. This leads sometimes to forgetting to explain the answer in more comprehensible language.

This creates some difficulties for those not fluent in Techno-speak. There is another tendency many of us have, particularly when we are new to something—to be shy about asking a question. This is particularly so when we think that everyone around us knows the answer to the question. From periodic surveys of people who attend HMUG meetings, we know that roughly one-fourth of the people at the meeting have never attended more than two meetings before. Most of them are novices like yourself.

Accordingly, I ask this of you: If someone asks a question to which you would like to know the answer, and the answer sounds as if it was given Linear B, do not hesitate to ask the person answering to explain things in simpler terms. The odds are great that many others in the room would also like to have the answer explained.

I will hazard another prediction. The odds are that you will discover, more quickly than you may today imagine, that you are gradually picking up Techno-speak. Soon, you will be bandying about terms like CPU, Head Crash, Pseudo-Random Numbers and XMODEM. It will not be long after that before you move into advanced Techno-speak, using terms not even in our Glossary. At that point, you can come to the front of the auditorium and give us a hand!

I.e. • Library

The Huntsville Macintosh Users Group (HMUG) maintains a disk and book library for the use and benefit of the membership. The primary purposes of the library are to promote interest in Macintosh computer use, provide members means of trying new free-ware and shareware, and expanding knowledge and use of the Macintosh computer. Members are encouraged to check-out material or copy any disk at the meetings subject to the policies and procedures below.

Library Policy

Check-out of Disk Library, Books, Publications and Videos:


Current Membership


Pickup and Return at HMUG Meetings


Two Week Interval Between Meetings


Approved If No One Is Waiting

Items Available in the Book Library

Books and Publications: These may not always be the latest edition and may not apply to the newer series Macintosh systems.

Macintosh Complete (1984) by Merl Miller & Mary Myers — Introduction to the Macintosh and its capabilities - 119 pages

Supermac (1985) by Danny Goodman — How to manage and use your MAC - 282 pages

Macintosh Revealed (1985) by Stephen Chernikoff — Volume 1 - Unlocking the Toolbox - 516 pages — Volume 2 - Programming with the Toolbox - 625 pages

Online (1984) by Steve Lambert — Discussion and examples of modem communications - 319 pages

The Power User’s Manual (1986) by Randel Kottwitz — Hints, tips and shortcuts with extensive index - 162 pages

• 68000 Assembly Language Programming (1981) by Gary Kane — Programming and architecture of the MC68000 - 563 pages

The Little Mac Book (1990) by Robin Williams — Informal guide for new Mac users - 104 pages

Information Catalogs and Product Directories: These are maintained for one year or until the new edition is published.

ADAPlog  — Information catalog for programmers and developers.

DEVELOP with CD ROM Disk — Technical journal for programmers and developers.

Macintosh Development Tools and Languages Guidebook — Summary of available development programs and applications.

Apple Guide to Desktop Publishing — A summary of Apple products and third party hardware        and software.

Apple Guide to Networking and Communications Products — Discussion on protocols, environments, products and tools.

Apple Vertical Market Product Directory — A catalog of third party programs and applications.

Quick Connect — Apple newsletter for User Groups.

Disk Library Catalog with STUFFIT Users Guide v1.5 — Includes an explanation of  STUFFIT options.

Technical Support Publications

• Macintosh Technical Notes

• Sound Manager Notes

• Human Interface Notes

• Script Manager Notes

• Macintosh Sample Code Notes

• Tech Tidbits

Video Material

User Group Connection video tapes are available to any club member for review or copy. Tapes will be maintained for one year unless it covers special material of interest to the membership.

Personal Books and Publications

Club members have extensive libraries of personal books and publications which they may be willing to comment on or loan out for review. Members who have an area of special interest and would like to review selected publications to determine if they meet their needs can often find a member who has purchased the publication. These interests should be discussed at the club meetings for comments or availability to review before purchase.

Software Libraries

HMUG maintains an extensive collection of software available for members to copy or purchase at minimum expense. This provides members with a source to obtain inexpensive shareware and public domain applications and other files useful with your computer. This software includes a wide variety of utility programs, games and entertainment software, system software, demo programs and applications for review, educational programs and - most important of all - programs that members have written to serve their own needs but which often support the needs of others as well.

The Macintosh disks are organized by functional categories of programs including Utilities, Desk Accessories, Games, Clip Art, INITs & Cdevs, Miscellaneous, Sounds, and HyperCard Stackware. The majority of Macintosh programs are on 3.5" double sided 800K disks.

You can obtain copies of these disks by purchasing prerecorded disks or by copying to them to your own disk at the meetings. You can buy disks from the Treasurer.

A catalog is available which describes the programs available on disk and provides an alphabetized list of all files. The lists also include information such as file size and date. The catalogs are updated as time permits and new disks are added to the library.

Our software collection has grown to its present size by the continuing contributions of our members, and we welcome your donations. Prepare a disk with any programs that you wish to share with other members. Have you written a program to keep track of your kitchen recipes? We want it! Have you computerized your jogging logbook? We need it! We will also welcome programs typed from magazines, provided that the programs can be distributed without restriction. If you did not write the entire program yourself, please let us know its source. It is also helpful if you include a text file with documentation on the program’s use. You can submit your disks at the General Meeting to the Treasurer or Disk Librarian. You need not “fill up” a disk before you contribute it.

If you receive a defective disk, you may exchange it at no cost at the General Meetings. Defective disks are those which cannot be read by your computer or that do not contain the material described in the disk catalog. However, if you damage a disk due to carelessness (my dog ate it), we are not in a position to exchange it.

You may occasionally find some programs on our disks that do not work on your computer. This may be due to the configuration of your particular machine, the system software on your machine or due to an error that the software author has made. Apple published guidelines for software authors but they are not always followed and sometimes the guidelines are changed or added to in ways neither the author or Apple could have foreseen. In any event, the result may be a program that works on one configuration of machine or operating system and not others. We ask your forbearance as we can neither guarantee that programs will work or keep up with all the variations of configurations that exist. If you get a program that doesn’t seem to work, try running it with versions of the system software that are have a date similar to the date on the program.

Although every programmer attempts to write perfect programs, bugs tend to turn up when the public uses a program in ways that its author did not test. HMUG cannot guarantee the quality of its programs. We would appreciate reports of errors and any known fixes. Debugging someone else’s program is a great way to learn new programming techniques! We will try to contact the program’s author.

All User Groups are plagued by the problem of frequent updates to popular software. Sometimes you will see the same file name on several disks, but this is because we would rather err on the side of making sure you get the latest version. If you find that one version of an application does not work your Mac, try an earlier or later incarnation. (Having said that, we also caution you not to throw out old versions until you’re sure that the new version works to your satisfaction.)

Safe Computing: Don’t initially run untested programs from your hard disk; first boot from a floppy disk, unmount the hard disk and then run the new program. Check any and all new acquisitions with a current Anti-Virus utility prior to using them. Only when you are satisfied that the program does what it is supposed to and is well behaved, should you run it from your hard disk.

A final note: Always keep a backup copy of your application and data files since your files may be inadvertently damaged at any time; usually when you least expect it and usually involving your most important files. This is true using programs on public domain, shareware, or commercial disks Remember there are only two types of computer users; “those who have already lost data and those who will lose data.”

Shareware and Public Domain Programs: Programs on our disks are usually one of three types: public domain, copyrighted with restriction or “shareware.” Public domain software has been placed in the public domain — that is for use without any restriction —by the author. Users may freely copy the whole or any part without reservation. Software that is copyrighted with restriction may be free, but the author owns the program and reserves specific legal rights to the code and to the distribution. Shareware is a relatively new marketing device that permits you to try out software at your convenience for a reasonable period of time. At the end of the tryout period you are honor bound to pay the author the fee he or she requests—usually a nominal amount—if you are going to keep the product.

Shareware is not free! At the end of the trial period if you decide not to use the product (and not to pay anything), you are asked to destroy your copy of it or give it to someone else, making sure that the other person knows the shareware nature of the product. Shareware is a great alternative to high-priced commercial programs that you usually have to read about or test in a retail store for only a few minutes before you decide whether or not to purchase the product. HMUG supports the concept of shareware, and reminds you our obligation to “pay up if you keep it” after the stated trial period. All computer users have a vested interest in supporting developers who produce good shareware. This can only be done by sending your money to the person(s) who took the time and effort to produce a product that you find useful. Shareware deserves your support!

Copy Protected Software: Copy protected software is designed and distributed in a manner that prevents the software from being copied using standard means, such as Filer in ProDOS or Finder on the Macintosh. Software publishers use copy-protection to prevent unscrupulous users from giving copies to their friends. Unfortunately, copy protection also prevents legitimate users from storing the program on a hard disk, on RAM disks or makes it impossible to make legitimate copies for back-up purposes.

Probably the most effective deterrent to copying is the printed material and documentation that comes with each program. At times, some people will copy a program and then impose upon Hotline Volunteers to answer questions, the answers to which would be apparent from reading the documentation. Such deceptions are easily spotted. Hotline Volunteers will respond only to questions from legitimate owners. Please call our Hotline Volunteers only after consulting your documentation and if you are truly stumped.

In general, experienced users avoid using the original copy of any software. The original is too easily damaged, erased or accidentally destroyed. Under federal copyright law, a user may make a back-up or “archival” copy of software he or she owns. Virtually all publishers attempt to defeat this legal right to some extent by “licensing” the software to the purchaser instead of selling it. They package a license agreement in the shrink-wrapping of the package, and argue that tearing off the shrink-wrap (or using the program) constitutes acceptance of the terms of the license, whatever they might be. Some jurisdictions passed laws to make such shrink-wrap licenses binding on buyers, but at least one court has held that such laws are invalid.

Software Piracy: HMUG opposes software piracy. Software piracy is not only illegal, it is also self-defeating in the long run. Piracy encourages publishers to use cumbersome copy protection schemes that hurt legitimate users. Piracy also discourages future software development, to everyone’s loss.

One reason some people are tempted to copy software is to “try it out before buying it.” To address this need, HMUG has asked publishers to donate software to its Commercial Software Library. This software is then made available to our members for a test-drive.

As noted above, the lawful copying of software is, by definition, lawful, even if the software is copy-protected. A number of highly effective programs are available for copying copy-protected software on the Mac. For example, Copy II Mac will copy most Mac software. These products come with extensive instructions and product support. Supercopy is a shareware program that will also copy Mac software. Again, we note that the purpose of these programs is to make lawful copies of software that you own and not to permit you or anyone else to distribute copies to non-owners.

I.f. • The Hotline

One of the most important services HMUG offers is the Hotline. This is a list of volunteers who are available to help you with your problems and questions. If you need help with a specific program, a piece of hardware, a programming language or many other computer related problems, these kind souls have volunteered to try to help you out. The list of Hotline volunteers appears in your Newsletter each month. Phone numbers are generally home phones. Please observe any conditions listed by the name of each volunteer.

Because of the number of inquiries they receive, Hotline volunteers may decline to answer questions from non-members. Please identify yourself as an HMUG member when you call. Also, please do not call with questions about problems with a commercial product unless you have purchased that product. However, Hotline volunteers will gladly entertain reasonable questions about whether a product will do something to meet your needs even if you don’t own it. Many of the volunteers are constant and very enthusiastic users of the products about which they answer questions!

Using the Hotline:

It’s easy! Find the current list of Hotline Volunteers in the Sign-in Book at the club meetings. To use, simply locate the topic of the program or problem you are having. Then call the person listed under that heading.

If you would like to help your fellow members by answering questions on the Hotline, please volunteer by calling a club officer or entering your name in the Sign-in Book.

I.g. • Telecommunications

The <TBD> BBS is independent from the Huntsville Macintosh User’s Group (HMUG), and provides HMUG members a valuable service as outlined below at a reduced price. However, BBS users are not required to join the HMUG.

The BBS is now running Second Sight 2.1b10, which now has Zmodem support for downloads. Second Sight is the new name for Red Ryder Host (because of licensing problems) so users will not notice any significant changes other than the logoff message and the Zmodem option.

1 - File Transfers

One of the major reasons for a BBS, and by far the most used aspect of the system, is the capability to exchange software (S/W) over the phone. What do you, the BBS user, need to accomplish this feat? This bulletin will answer that question!

First, some background on file types and transfer methods: The BBS S/W supports four types of files: Macintosh applications, Mac documents, other applications and documents, and plain text files. So far this particular BBS has not included the third category, which it would if we supported an Apple II section. The first two categories can, for the purposes of file transfer, can be lumped together as ‘Mac files’ and will be discussed later.

This leaves text files. These files can be downloaded (DL’ed) in three ways: Xmodem CRC, Xmodem Checksum, and ASCII. Text files are the ONLY kind of file that can be DL’ed with a straight ASCII transfer. This means that the text characters are simply shipped across the telephone line as they occur within the file. If a noise burst changes one of the characters (like th{s) there is no way that your computer can detect it and either correct it or request a retransmission. However, you can both detect it (because ‘th{s’ is not an English word), and correct it (because ‘this’ is what you would expect in an English sentence with that context).

Before we get too far afield, any computer using a terminal emulator can save text to a file, which almost all decent emulators can do. (An emulator is a program that ‘transforms’ your computer into a terminal, by routing keystrokes from your keyboard to the modem, and by displaying characters from the modem on your display.) Applications and non-text documents (e.g., pictures) are much harder to transfer, because they are binary files. This means that each byte (the unit of information that is transferred over the phone line) can be any value from 0 to 255. Most of these bytes aren’t displayable and some mean special things to the communication protocol. All the bytes in a text file will be printable characters or <carriage return> or <line feed>, (i.e., values ranging from 32 to 127, and 13 and 10). Also, errors are more critical. If you DL a program and a noise burst changes a ‘65’ to an ‘85’, the program probably won’t work and you will be hard pressed to dig through a dump and figure out which value has changed.

For these reasons, the Xmodem protocol was developed (by Ward Christiansen). Each file is divided into 128-byte blocks which are sent one at a time, each with a checksum which is used to determine if errors occur during transmission. If errors occur, the receiver can request retransmission until the block is received correctly. There are also standards within the protocol that specify what to do if there is no transmission within a time limit, etc. Red Ryder Host (this BBS!) supports both Checksum and CRC.

Xmodems: Checksum is the ‘original’ and is more widely supported, whereas CRC has significantly better error detection capabilities. Use Xmodem/CRC if you can.

Most terminal emulators support one or both versions of Xmodem. Why then are people having trouble downloading files? Well, files on most computers are just streams of data associated with a name (a slight simplification). Mac files often include two data streams, the data ‘fork’ and the resource ‘fork’, as well as the file information such a Creator and File Type. The problem of transmitting Mac files and preserving this information was solved with the MacBinary protocol, which defines the data WITHIN the 128-byte blocks of Xmodem.

All Mac file transfers on this system are based in the MacBinary protocol, thus making file transfers over phone lines almost as simple as disk-to-disk transfers (though slower). To use download Mac files from this system, your terminal emulator must support MacBinary! Although older versions of some software do not, virtually all of the current versions do support it! This includes Red Ryder 8.0-10.3, MacTerminal 2.0, SmartCom II 2.2, and Microphone 1.0, (i.e., all of the ‘common’ terminal emulators.) FreeTerm is a *free* terminal emulator that supports MacBinary, though it won’t provide all the goodies that these others will. Do NOT buy a package that doesn’t support MacBinary, unless it has some special capabilities that you can’t live without (such as Tektronix graphics emulation).

To summarize: virtually any computer with a decent emulator can do text (ASCII) file captures, while only emulators supporting MacBinary and Xmodem can download Mac files correctly. There are several good reasons that this board will not use alternative protocols, so it is up to the user to get software that supports the standard.

2 - File Uploads

In order to keep duplicates off the BBS and to aid in the maintenance of the system, uploaders should try to follow the following guidelines:

Never upload commercial software.

Try to use StuffIt or an equivalent program to compress the files. This saves both disk space and DL time for everyone who DLs the file. One exception to this rule is GIF files, which are already compressed and don’t get significantly smaller after stuffing.

The actual file name (as seen at the Finder level) of the to-be-uploaded file should include the version. This greatly assists the SysOp in keeping track of what’s recent and what’s obsolete.

The BBS allows only 12 characters for the BBS file name. Use it wisely. An ‘.S’ can be used as shorthand for ‘.SIT’. I sometimes put the .Sit in the Version field.

Before uploading, use the G and S commands (in the Uploads menu) to search the All_Files and Uploads sections for duplicates. The name used for the upload may not be exactly the same, so use an uncommon fragment of the name. Using ‘BBS’ as a search key would list all files with ‘BBS’ in the name, including ‘HyperBBS’, ‘BBS Report’, ‘Huntsville BBSs’, and so on. For example, if you were about to UL Sound Master 1.5, you could search for Master, Sound, Snd, Mstr, etc. If you do find a possible match, check the version of the existing file. Don’t upload your file if the same version is already online. (If there are special circumstances, contact the SysOp and explain them after uploading.)

If your upload supersedes an older version that is online, send Email to the SysOp or leave a message in the ‘Files’ message base to indicate the old version should be deleted. (I try to catch these cases, but it helps to have reminders.)

Do not upload pornographic material. The standards here are roughly the same as commercial services such as GEnie, which means that R-Rated material is allowed and X-rated isn’t. Nudity is allowed, but sexual acts or anything extremely suggestive are not.

Unless you are well-known to the SysOp, any ULed files will not be available for DL immediately until I take a look at them, which may be a day or two. Feel free to send me a reminder but don’t get upset if you don’t see it immediately.

All files are uploaded to a special section. I will move the file to the proper section after it is checked. Users may DL from this section, but be aware that the files may be viral, obscene, or just a waste of time. Therefore, do so at your own risk!

3 - File Downloads

The TBD BBS has numerous file sections, which is a collection of files. The ‘primary’ file sections are organized by type of file, such as applications, utilities, Mac II files, communications files, DAs, and so on. The exact categories may change over time as the BBS evolves, but the basic concept stays the same. There are intrinsic problems in deciding where a given file should go. For example, should a HyperCard-based adventure game go into the HyperCard section or the Games section? Does a terminal emulator DA belong in the DAs or the Communications section? In short, you may have to try a couple of different locations. Only BBS members (i.e., those that support the BBS financially) have DL access to these files.

All of the files within the ‘primary’ sections are collected into a single ‘All Files’ section. When using the Search command to look for a file, this is the place to go, since files in any of the primary sections can be located. Again, only BBS members have DL access, but all BBS users can browse.

The ‘Going’ section contains files that are being purged, usually because they’ve been on-line a long time and the space is needed for newer files. All BBS users have DL access to these files.

Apple System and Developers files are on-line as well, but are NOT included in the All Files section, for legal/licensing reasons. All users have access after agreeing to Apple’s license.

Some of the Apple files may be a tad large to DL in the allowable time. BBS members have from 75-95 minutes, but other validated users only have 45. You can use the ‘More Time’ option between midnight and 3 AM to get up to 180 minutes of connect time.

All BBS user may upload a file to the HMUG newsletter by using the ‘N’ command at the top file menu. Only BBS members may DL from this section.

The ‘L - New-files since Library Update’ command is not really meaningful due to poor coordination between the HMUG library and the BBS. The intent was to list all files that are not yet in the HMUG library.

The ‘Uploads’ section is a holding area for new uploads.Use at your own risk.

The Private file section is an area for users to send files to each other. Details are included in a help file under that menu, but the process will entail an UL followed by a message to the recipient giving the name of the file. Only users who are told the name will be able to DL. All files will be deleted in 10 days.

Finally, there is a special section for RRHost Utils support. Eventually current versions of my utilities will be there, and users may UL problem files if they think they’ve found a bug.

4 - StuffIt (.sit) and Packit (.pit)

Many files here have suffixes of either ‘.pit’ (Packit) or ‘.sit’ (StuffIt). To transform these files into something usable, you will need to unpack or unstuff the file. Both Unstuffit (free) or StuffIt (shareware, and worth every dime) will do the job on everything but encrypted Packed files.

Both programs are used to pack several files into a single file, and to compress the files into a denser package. This saves storage space for infrequently used files, and, more important, reduces the time required to transfer the file across phone lines. By combining several files into a single entity, uploaders can ensure that anyone who downloads a file will get all the necessary parts. For example, an application might be packed with documentation and one or more examples.

Packit was first on the scene and quickly became essential to anyone who downloaded Mac files, as most were ‘Packit’ed. StuffIt is a more recent arrival, but has superseded Packit because it is faster, provided random access to the files contained within a Stuffed archive, and provides better compression resulting in smaller output files. I have actually compressed a 340K+ file down to 47K. StuffIt also provides the capability to unpack ‘PackIt’ files.

StuffIt is shareware and may be used to Stuff files. UnstuffIt is free but can only unstuff files that you have downloaded from another system. Both files are available on the <TBD> BBS or the HMUG Disk Library.

5 - New User Message

Most services on this system are free, but only BBS members may download (DL) most files. Other users are free to ask questions, give answers, argue about the topics of the day. They may browse the file sections to get an idea as to whether BBS membership is worth it. All users also have access to Apple System and Developer Software after agreeing to Apple’s License. All users have access to the ‘Going’ section, which contains files that are in the process of being removed from the BBS.

One point in the last paragraph needs to be emphasized because some people miss it: download privileges cost money. See the bulletins for details. Validation: All users should validate immediately. This system does not show menu options that you don’t have privilege to use. Unvalidated users won’t even see 80% of the BBS. Validation consists of leaving your name, address, and phone number, which may be verified at my option. Leaving false information is grounds for removal of all privileges. All users should read the bulletins, which are accessed by entering a ‘B’ at the main menu. The bulletins cover all sorts of items, including how the file system is organized, general BBS tips, how to join the HMUG, and so on.

After browsing for a session or two, you may decide that it’s worth joining the BBS in order to get more time per call and the ability to download files. To join, you’ll need to send in $9 if you’re a HMUG member or $18 if you’re not. Details are listed in the bulletins.

6 - BBS Standards:

The normal restrictions of all BBS’s apply here:

All messages should be free of profanity and character slurs, and all messages should meet basic standards of taste.

No illegal or immoral activity will be allowed, with the SysOp being the judge of what’s immoral or illegal. In keeping with this policy, the SysOp reserves the right to read all private mail. However, your privacy will be respected.

If in doubt, keep silent or ask the System Operator.

7 - Feedback:

Suggestions, complaints, and questions may be sent to the SysOp in several ways. If other users may be able to help (and this is often true), then send the question as public mail to the System Operator. If it is something that only I can answer, such as ‘Did you get my check?,’ send the question as either private mail (Email) or use the ‘Private Message to SysOp’ option. Entering a ‘C’ at the Main Menu will take you to the SysCom menu with both these options. In extremely rare and urgent situations, you may request to Chat with the SysOp from this menu, but don’t do it unless you have a really good reason. Also, if you’re having troubles getting connected, it’s OK to call me (Tom Konantz) at 881-6483 after 6:00 P.M. and before 11:00 P.M., or drop by the Mac Users Group meetings.

Generally, messages stay up at least 60 days before they’re flushed. Do not delete public messages, even if addressed to you, if the message would be of interest to others.

8 - Validation

This system is based on a priority structure in which different users can do different things based on their level. Each level has all capabilities of lower levels. All new users start at level 10.

All users should use the V command to validate so that the system operator will have correct names and addresses. This is necessary to protect me and us from legal problems. All users get more access time and privileges upon validation.

If you are a member of the Huntsville Macintosh User’s Group, you should have your membership number and expiration date ready. This number is shown on your HMUG Newsletter address label. Spot checks are made to ensure the validity of the information.


010 — Read Messages and File Directory; Leave Comments to SysOp

030 — Enter Messages and Mail

070 — Validated User Level

080 — Upload and Download Files

090 — Access to HMUG business Message base

100 — HMUG member with access to file sections.

110 — Access to HMUG Exec Msg base. (requires the Executive’s Pass Word)

120 — HMUG executive with access to file system.

Time Limits:

15 minutes — Unvalidated Users

45 minutes — Validated Users

60 minutes — HMUG Members/BBS Subscribers/Other Privileged Users

75 minutes — BBS Members

90 minutes — HMUG ‘Executives’


As you can see, it is worth the time to validate.

9 - How to Use the BBS - Tips

All menus use a ‘Q’ to get to the ‘parent’ menu, which is usually the previous menu. You can always return to the Main Menu if you hit ‘Q’ enough times.

Hitting Control-C will usually abort the current operation. This is especially useful if you want to stop a long text file read or want to stop a continuous sequence of message reads. It can also be used in public message bases to skip the remainder of a message. Different terminal emulators generate this character in different ways, but it will usually be either command-C or option-C. There is one exception: hitting control-C while reading a private message will take you back to the beginning of the message, unlike the behavior during public message reads. You do not have to wait for a menu to be completely displayed before entering a command. For example, if, at the Main Menu, you enter ‘M’, ‘A’, ‘R’, ‘N’ as fast as you can type, then you will start to read the latest messages on the system. The example presumes that ‘Hot Menus’ is on, which means you don’t have to hit <return> after each command. I assume that a similar sequence will work even if this option was turned off.

The Bulletin, “List Of Menus,” shows a list of all the menus in the system as well as their hierarchy. Users may want to capture a listing of this file to become more familiar with the services of the BBS. All of the file sections are also listed, as well as which Menus reference which file section.

Within the ‘Terminal Parameters’ option, in the Utilities Menu (off Main Menu), there is an option to select the method of screen clear (either a Form Feed or 24 <returns>) or to turn screen clear off altogether. The BBS is easier to use if you turn this off completely, especially if you have your terminal emulator remembering (scrolling but saving) past screens. You have less white space to look at. It’s especially helpful to be able to list recent files and be able to see the list as you enter the filename to be downloaded. I often Copy the name into the clipboard, then Paste it directly after the FileName prompt, thus saving any typing and avoiding any chance of misspelling. If you want to try this, answer the ‘Hello World’ question with an ‘X’.

10 - BBS Rates

The <TBD> BBS is now independent from the Huntsville Macintosh User’s Group (HMUG). It does not mean that we will be severing all ties with the HMUG, but, in practical terms, that BBS users can support the BBS in dollar terms without joining the HMUG.

There will be several levels of BBS membership, each providing more privileges than lower levels, and lasting for 1 year.



Cost Limit    Privileges

$0................ 30 minutes — Message base access

$9................ 75 minutes — Full Access (HMUG Member)

$18 per Year *    75 minutes — Full access. No

                         limit to file access.

* This category will be offered at a 50% discount to Huntsville HMUG members. See HMUG/BBS Agreement Bulletin.

“Isn’t $1.50 per month still pretty expensive?”- Remember this doesn’t include time spent logging in, communicating with the SysOp, reading messages, etc. The cost is much cheaper than getting the same file off a national information service, and the BBS needs cash to continue to stay online without being a personal sacrifice to the SysOp.

“What BBS rules are in effect for ‘official,’ paid-up, users?”- All rules regarding BBS conduct apply to everyone. The time limits reflect the maximum time that a caller may stay on PER DAY during normal hours. (Time limits are extended for early morning callers.) This allows others to get a chance to use the system.

Users are encouraged to invest in high speed modems, as it speeds file transfers, and allows the BBS to be used by more people.

11 - This System

This BBS is running on a Mac Plus (originally purchased as a 128K Mac, now upgrade to a 4 megabyte machine) with a DataFrame 20 megabyte and a Jasmine Direct Drive 80 megabyte drive. The modem is usually a Practical Peripherals PM2400SA 2400 baud modem (when available) or a FHR 1200 Intelligent Modem (from Jade Computer).

The system is connected via EasyNet connectors to both an AppleTalk ImageWriter II printer and a Mac II (40 megabyte HD, Color, 5 megabyte RAM). A MagicTape 150 tape drive is connected to the Mac II and is used to do backups.

During periods of intense BBS maintenance the DD-80 is connected to the Mac II and the BBS runs on the Plus via TOPS (a distributed file server). During these periods, BBS performance will be slower and may drop to nothing during intensive disk activity on the Mac II.

The BBS uses Second Sight (formerly Red Ryder Host) 2.1b10 software by Scott Watson, author of the Red Ryder/White Knight communications package (an entirely different program). Several RRHost utilities are also used: The Message Manager, Host File Editor, Guest Editor, FSP, TSX, ListMenus, and AnalyzeCL, the last 4 of which were written by the SysOp and are distributed as shareware to other RRHost systems..

12 - Main Menu Help File:

B - Used to reach a Bulletin selection menu. All new users should read

M - Used to enter Message Subsystem. Another menu listing the different message bases will appear. Selecting one of the bases will put you into a menu which allows you to read, scan, browse (scan with option to read), kill, and enter messages.

E - Used to enter Private Mail subsystem. Private mail may be read by the System Operator at his discretion.

F - Enter the file transfer system. This option may not exist if your priority level is too low.

U - Used to enter subsystem containing various and sundry options, including chat with SysOp, change terminal preferences, and change password.

R - Gets the Red Ryder Utility Support.

C - Comment to SysOp: Use to request raises in priority level and to make suggestions. Requests must be accompanied with real name, address, and phone number. If you are a member of the Huntsville Mac Users Group, include your membership number and expiration date. This will get you all generally available options on the BBS. If you are interested in Mac development, say so and you will have access to the MacDev message base.

X - Toggle Expert Mode; Try it and see! When in expert mode, hitting ‘return’ without a command will list the complete menu.

G - Good-bye: Logoff... This is done immediately, with no ‘Are you sure?’ message, so be careful.

13 - ? - Help:

The <TBD> BBS file system is divided into several different subsystems.

The ‘A’ command will take you to the All Files section which is an aggregate containing all files in any of the ‘By Type’ sections. This includes most of the files available for download, but does not include Newsletter files, files waiting in the Uploads section, or private files. Off-line files are also excluded.

The ‘T’ command will take to the Files by Type submenu. Users can specify one of the several different categories, such as Utilities, CDEV/INITs, Art, Sounds, and Demos. Users are invited to browse for a current list. Some of the categories, such as Art, Hypercard, and DA’s (Desk Accessories) are divided into subcategories.

Files from the Communications and AntiViral sections are available to all BBS users, including non-BBS members (i.e., those who have not paid a yearly fee).

The ‘O’ command will take you to the ‘Off-line’ section. Off-line files includes a list of files which are not resident on the BBS but are on backup media and may be retrieved on request. This service is available only to BBS members. See the help command within that menu for more details.

G’ will take you to the Going section. This is a list of files that are about to be taken off the system. All users (including non-BBS-members) can download these files. Files within this section may disappear at any time.

The ‘S’ command will take either take you to the Apple System SW menu, or to a survey so that you can read and agree to the Apple license (if you haven’t already). Apple Developer’s Software (including the latest ResEdit) is available indirectly through this section.

The ‘N’ command will take you to the HMUG Newsletter file section. All users can UL files for eventual inclusion in the newsletter. HMUG members can also download from this section.

The ‘P’ command will take you to the ‘Private’ file section, which is intended to provide a means for BBS users to exchange files without making them available to everyone. See the Help (‘?’) command within this section for details.

I.h. • Activities

HMUG “Work” Parties: Despite the awesome title that conjures up images of drudges shackled to their Mac’s doing penance for unspeakable crimes against humanity, HMUG “Work” Parties are enjoyable events. From time to time it is worthwhile to gather a group of HMUG volunteers at a convenient location to tackle a project of common interest. On other occasions, a single individual will tackle a chore of common interest and benefit to the group. Examples include:

a. HMUG Software Library cataloging session - Our public domain/freeware/shareware collection of Mac software grows constantly. Unfortunately, the new programs do not come nicely sorted into collections of desk accessories, collections of clip art, games, HyperCard collections, etc. Periodically HMUG members have gathered to sort disks to group software logically for our library.

b. HMUG Software Library descriptions - What’s on this disk? Our Software Librarian is in no position to describe the contents of every disk in our software library. One member, as an individual effort, has reviewed and prepared short summaries of the content of the Library disks.

c. HMUG Handbook - HMUG members responded to a member’s leadership in preparing individual sections of this Handbook.

d. IEEE Computer Fair Preparations and Participation - Annually (February or March) the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers hosts a Computer Fair in the Von Braun Civic Center. This is a gathering of most of the major computer manufacturers, local computer dealers, and local computer user groups. The Huntsville Macintosh Users Group participates each year in this activity. Such participation does not come without some planning and preparations. It is an excellent opportunity for the HMUG to enhance public awareness of the capabilities of the Macintosh and the benefits of joining the HMUG. This is usually the single most important event in terms of boosting membership. We depend heavily on member participation to make this activity successful. Please volunteer when it is discussed at member meetings.

e. Tutorial Sessions - As interest supports the effort, HMUG organizes tutorial sessions in major popular Mac commercial software topics. These sessions are targeted for the new users and do demand considerable “Work” Party participation.

f. Other Possibilities - You name it, we’ll consider it. Help the Huntsville Public Library with our software collection? Help a youth group with computer utilization?

I.i. • Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

HMUG’s membership is remarkable in its diversity.  Our group can accommodate a wide range of our members’ interests.  The club can form any number of Special Interest Groups (which can be affectionately refer to as SIGs) if members express a need and willingness to support them.  The assortment of SIGs can reflect the diversity of areas which can be explored with your computer.  By spending a moment to review your needs, you can define the SIGs which best match your interests.  Then bring it up at a club meeting and take the lead in forming the SIG.  Remember, as you set off to explore unchartered continents in the Apple world, a SIG can help to guide you on your explorations.  Also, remember that SIGs come and go depending on the interest of the members.  As this publication goes to press, there are no organized SIG activities.

Special Interest Groups:

Desktop Publishing SIG:  If you have an interest in keeping up with the latest developments in this rapidly changing field, see the newsletter for the time and place of the next meeting. 

Potential Special Interest Groups:

Art and Video SIG:  Members, both professional and amateur, can join together to explore graphics and fine arts, video animation, or just explore existing and upcoming software and hardware for their particular interests.

Education SIG:  An Education SIG (ED SIG) is another area where a special interest group could be formed to look at all aspects of using microcomputers for education. Above all, ED SIG is a place where people involved in the educational use of microcomputers could exchange experiences and solutions to problems.

Game SIG:  Games are always of interest to a large number of our members.  A SIG which demonstrates the latest games and entertainment programs and provides hints for new game users is another area which can be explored if you take the lead.

HyperCard SIG:  While there is little current interest in HyperCard among our members, this area can also be developed.  We have a need for someone to demonstrate the latest stacks and discuss HyperTalk Programming techniques to expand our involvement in this interesting and challenging area.

Macintosh Programmers’ SIG:  Macintosh programmers include not only amateur and professional programmers, but also non-programmers with an interest in the technical side of the Mac.  Dan Richard has demonstrated his own projects and conducted classes on the latest programming tools, and reports on developer conferences.

Programmers’ Interface SIG:  A Programmers’ Interface SIG can be oriented toward writing assembly language routines which would hook into Applesoft programs, DOS, ProDOS, and Pascal.

All it takes to activate a SIG is your interest and a willingness to take the lead.

I.j. • Tutorials

 - To be published later.


II. • Bits and Slices

This section contains a myriad of information, from the HMUG By-Laws to helpful hints and definitions that can help you to be a happy computer.

II.a • By-Laws of the Huntsville Macintosh User’s Group

Article I

The name of this organization shall be Huntsville Macintosh Users Group hereinafter referred to as the “Group”. Further, all references to “he” hereinafter shall be construed to mean “he or she.”

Article II

The purposes for which this organization is formed are:

Section 1 — Specific and Primary Purposes.

The specific and primary purposes of this organization are to promote and encourage educational interest in Macintosh computer arts and sciences with particular emphasis upon defining, enlarging upon and applying the computer to education and to the social, scientific and environmental problems of society. To this end, the Group, with the consent of a majority of the Executive Committee, may cooperate with, and, if appropriate, provide services to persons, other groups, any local, state or federal governmental body or agency, or to any school, college or university.

Section 2 — General Purposes and Powers.

A. To exchange and disseminate information among the Group members concerning Macintosh computer arts and sciences.

B. To provide technical assistance to other members of the Group in those computer projects which are not undertaken for pecuniary gain or profit including, but not limited to, hardware, software and computer programming.

C. To publish books, newsletters, magazines and other periodicals for the educational benefit of the Group members and the general public.

D. To conduct and sponsor seminars, lectures and courses relating to the Macintosh computer arts and sciences.

E. To maintain a Group library consisting of books, films, catalogues, disks, tapes, programs, journals or other materials relating to the Macintosh computer arts and sciences.

F. To develop and maintain computer and laboratory workshops for the members of the Group and the general public, including provisions for time-sharing operations. Subject to the provisions of article II, Section 1, the computer centers and their capabilities would be available to the Group members, governmental agencies, educational institutions and those members of the general public whose use is non-profit in nature as defined and enumerated in these By-laws.

G. It shall be the policy of the Group to actively discourage the unauthorized copying of software, except for that which is classified as within the Public Domain, also known as “Freeware” and “Shareware”. Such unauthorized copying shall under no circumstances be conducted under the auspices of the Group.

H. To engage in any activity not inconsistent with the provisions of these By-laws.

Section 3 — Non-Profit status.

The Group is not organized, nor shall it be operated for, pecuniary gain or profit, and it does not contemplate the distribution of gains, profits or dividends to its members, and is organized solely for non-profit purposes. The property, assets, profits and net income of the Group are irrevocably dedicated to scientific, educational and community services, and no part of the profit and net income shall inure to the benefit of any officer, member or individual. Should the Group ever be dissolved or cease to exist, its assets remaining after payment of all debts and liabilities shall be distributed to a non-profit fund, foundation, corporation or governmental body that is organized and operated exclusively for scientific, educational or community service purposes and has established its tax exempt status under the Internal Revenue Code and the Revenue and Taxation code.

Section 4 — Additional Purposes.

A. To buy, lease, rent or otherwise acquire, hold or use, own, enjoy, sell, exchange, lease as lessor, mortgage, deed in trust, pledge, encumber, transfer or trust or otherwise dispose of any and all kinds of property, whether real, personal or mixed, and to receive property by gift, bequest or devise.

B. To enter into, make, perform and carry out contracts of every kind for any lawful purpose with any person, firm, corporation or governmental agency.

C. To solicit, receive funds and property by gift, will or otherwise, from individuals, trusts, corporations, associations, societies, institutions or other organizations or authorities desirous of contributing to the purposes for which this group is formed.

D. Notwithstanding any of the above statements of purposes and powers, this Group shall not engage in activities that in themselves are not in furtherance of the purposes set forth Section 1 of this Article II, and nothing contained in the foregoing statement of purposes shall be construed to authorize the Group to carry on any activity for the profit of its members, or to distribute any property, gains or profits to any of its members.

Article III

The county in the State of Alabama which is the principal office for the transaction of the business of the Group is Madison County.

Article IV

Membership in the Group shall be open to all persons without regard to age, race, religion, sex, creed or national origin and shall be governed by the following:

Section 1 — Members.

There shall be two classes of member of the Group which shall be termed regular member, and additional family member(s). A regular member’s membership entitles him to all privileges of the Group including receipt of the periodic newsletter. An additional family membership entitles him to all privileges of the Group except that only one newsletter shall be distributed to each family. One vote shall be allowed for each regular membership, and each additional family membership above the age of thirteen.

Section 2 — Group Membership

The members of the Group shall consist of those persons who, upon the date of the adoption of these By-laws, shall have paid current dues to the Group for a regular membership or an additional family membership(s). Thereafter, members shall be those persons who pay such dues and assessments as are determined by the Executive Committee and approved by a two-thirds (2/3) majority of the voting members present. Regular membership in the Group without the payment of dues may be granted by the Executive Committee in those cases of financial hardship. If dues are waived, no additional family membership will be allowed. Memberships are not transferable.

Section 3 — Admission to Membership

No person shall be excluded from membership because of age, race, religion, sex, color or creed. The only qualification for membership shall be payment of such dues or subscription fee, or waiver of dues when determined by the majority vote of the Executive Committee. No membership may be terminated for any reason other than the non-payment of dues or assessments or a violation of these By-laws. Termination of membership for a violation of these By-laws must be by a three-fourths (3/4) vote of the voting members present.

Section 4 — Meetings of the Members.

The General Membership meeting of the members of the Group shall be held at a time determined by the executive committee and by a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the group. Other meetings shall be called and held at a time and place to be designated by the Executive Committee. The General Membership Meeting shall be conducted in accordance with Robert’s Rules of Order. A quorum, which shall be 10% of the membership, shall be required for the conduct of official business. In the eventuality that a quorum is not obtained at a monthly membership meeting, the quorum requirements will be reduced by 25% at each succeeding meeting until such time as a quorum is obtained. The quorum requirements will then revert to the 10% figure.

Section 5 — Voting

All regular members, and additional family members over the age of thirteen shall have equal voting rights and each such membership shall be entitled to one (1) vote.

Article V

Section 1 — Executive Committee

The Executive Committee is the governing body of the Group shall be composed of the elected officers of the Group, president, vice president, treasurer, secretary and programs.

Section 2 — Meetings.

Executive Committee Meetings shall be conducted in accordance with Robert’s Rules of Order. Fifty (50%) percent of the executive officers holding office shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In case of a tie vote, the president shall cast the deciding vote.

Meetings of the Executive Committee shall be held as required to conduct the business of the Group, at a time and place as determined by the majority of the committee. Special meetings of the Executive Committee shall be held at such times and places as directed by the president.

Section 3 — Powers of the Executive Committee.

Subject to the limitations of these By-laws, the business and affairs of the Group shall be controlled by the Executive Committee including, but not limited to, the following:

A. To conduct, manage and control the affairs and business of the Group.

B. To receive on behalf of the Group, gifts, bequests and devices in the form of property or moneys.

C. To formulate policies and programs which will be presented to the general membership for vote.

Article VI

Section 1 — Officers

The officers of the Group shall be a President, a Vice-President, a Secretary , a Treasurer and a Programs officer who shall constitute the Executive Committee.

Section 2 — Election.

The Executive Committee shall appoint a Nominating Committee of not less than 3 members and announce the committee at the November general membership meeting. The Nominating Committee will insure that all persons whom they nominate for office will accept the position if elected. The Nominating Committee will present a recommended slate of officers at the December general membership meeting. Nominations from the general membership on the floor will also be accepted at the December meeting and then nominations will be closed. Any person nominated from the floor at the general membership meeting will announce his willingness to accept the office, if elected, prior to the close of nominations. The election of officers shall be by secret ballot at the March formal meeting. Ballots from members not attending the meeting must be signed and delivered to an officer or member of the Nominating Committee before the March formal meeting. Ballots will be published in the January and February newsletters. The person receiving the highest number of votes for an office shall hold the office for the ensuing term. Incumbents may be reelected without restriction.

Section 3 — Term of Office.

Officers shall be elected at each March formal meeting of regular members, or at any special meeting of the members held in lieu of the meeting. All officers shall hold office until their respective successors take office, except in the case of resignation, death, disability, or removal of an officer. New officers will take office in April at the formal meeting, one month after the election, at which time the previous officers’ terms shall expire.

Section 4 — Removal and Resignation.

An officer may resign or may be removed from office by a majority vote of the members. The Executive Committee shall appoint a person to complete the remaining terms of vacant offices with the appointee having all of the rights and responsibilities of the office.

Section 5 — Duties.

A. President. The president shall be the executive officer of the Group and shall have general supervision of the affairs of the Group. He shall preside at all meetings of the Executive Committee and General Membership. At the April formal meeting of each year, the outgoing president shall make a report of the general business of the Group during the previous year. At the same meeting, the incoming president will then assume office and present a proposed budget for the ensuing year. The proposed budget must be accepted by a majority of the regular members present, or must be amended so as to be acceptable. The president shall appoint all committees and shall be an ex-officio member of all committees.

B. Vice-President. The vice-president shall, in the absence or disability of the president, perform all the duties of the president, and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to the restrictions on, the president. The vice-president shall perform such other duties as may be designated by the president.

C. Secretary. The secretary shall keep the minutes of all membership and executive officers meetings. In his absence, another club officer will be designated to take the minutes. The secretary shall maintain a file of all minutes and official correspondence of the Group, conduct the official correspondence of the Group and shall perform such other duties as may be designated by the Executive Committee. Files will be retired with the approval of the Executive Committee.

D. Treasurer. The treasurer shall be responsible for the financial records and accounts of the Group and shall keep and maintain adequate and correct books of account showing the receipts and disbursements of the Group with such depositories as are designated by the Executive Committee. He shall render to the president or the Executive Committee, on request, statements of the financial condition of the Group. He shall insure the timely payment of all bills, submittal of all taxes and other financial papers. The treasurer shall be responsible for maintaining current records of the membership. He shall provide membership information to authorized persons, when required, to support the Group’s activities. He shall maintain a membership file containing the name and address, and other such information as may be required, of each member of the Group.

E. Programs. The Programs officer shall be responsible for recommending club programs, and with approval of the Executive Committee arranging for programs for the monthly formal and informal meetings. He shall prepare and update the planned program schedule, and prepare the announcements for the monthly newsletter.

Section 6 — Appointed Officers/Volunteers.

The President with the concurrence of the Executive Committee shall appoint such volunteers as deemed necessary to support the normal functions and special activities of the Group. These appointed officers shall serve at the discretion of the President for his term of office or until completion of the activity.

Article VII

Section 1 — Execution of Documents.

The Executive Committee may authorize any officer or agent to enter into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Group, and this authority may be general or confined to specific instances; and, unless so authorized by the Executive Committee, no officer or agent or other person shall have any power or authority to bind the Group by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or amount.

Section 2 — Fiscal Year.

The fiscal year of the Group shall begin on the first day of April and end on the last day of March of each year.

Section 3 — Budget.

Acceptance of the budget constitutes authority for disbursement of funds up to the extent of the authorized expenditures.

Section 4 — Inspection of By-laws.

The Group shall keep in its principal office the original or a copy of these By-laws, as amended or otherwise altered to date, certified by the secretary, which shall be open to inspection by the members at all reasonable times.

Article VIII

These By-Laws may be amended only in the following manner:

A. The Executive Committee, whenever two-thirds (2/3) of the officers shall consider it necessary, shall propose amendments to these by-laws, or,

B. Ten percent (10%) or five (5) of the regular members (whichever is less) may petition the Committee to amend the By-laws. The petition shall clearly set forth the ARTICLES and Sections to be amended, and thereafter the Executive Committee must propose said amendments to the general membership within forty-five days.

C. Any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the regular members in written form no less than five (5) and no more than forty-five (45) days before a vote shall be taken.

D. Any amendment shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of these By-Laws, when ratified by the vote of two-thirds (2/3) vote of the regular members present at a meeting called for that purpose. Notice of such meeting shall be given to all regular members no less than five (5) days prior to such meeting.

Adopted this 10th day of November, 1990 by a majority vote of the members present.


Lee W. Jones - Secretary

24 November 1990

II.b. • Tips and Shortcuts

This sub-section is divided into two parts. The first part is tips or shortcuts selected for people who are new to the Macintosh, or new to HMUG. The second part is a brief review of books and other materials which contain tips, shortcuts or items of interest to all users.

Part 1: Tips for new users.

Compressed Files: Nearly all of the HMUG shareware library has been compressed (to save disk space) by using StuffIt ® If you want to use the HMUG library you will need to know how to use StuffIt or Unstuffit (a freeware version used only to unstuff StuffIt files) StuffIt and Unstuffit are on HMUG disk #NS100. Stuffit Deluxe ($63) is an enhanced commercial version. There is also a new version 1.6 of Stuffit Classic and UnStuffIt Deluxe in the HMUG library.

You can open Stuffit like any application (program) by either double clicking on the application or a Stuffit file. A Stuffit file can usually be recognized because the file name ends with .sit (NAME.sit) Select the file(s) that you want to unstuff and click on “extract” at the bottom of the dialog box. (see Figure II-1):

After you click on “extract” a second dialog box will appear (Right hand side of Figure). This box is for choosing a name for the unstuffed file. One will be suggested and highlighted by the program. (Household Inventory in our example) If you want another name just type it in. This box is also where you choose where the unstuffed file will be placed. In our example it will be placed on the disk “HARD DRIVE” and in the folder HOME. If you want to put the file somewhere else, just change the disk and/or folder as you would in any other dialog box.

Once you have completed your changes, click on ‘Save’ (or ‘Save all’ if you began by selecting more than one item in the first box) The program will now run and display a new box with several items in it. All you need to do is sit back and watch. When it is finished, the program beeps at you to let you know it’s done, and only the first box remains on your screen.

Stuffit has a 30+ page manual that is on the HMUG disk with very detailed information, but these notes are hopefully enough to get you started.

SPECIAL NOTE: Stuffit is like cooking rice. A little bit swells up to fill a large pot when you cook it. In our example above, the four items in the first box are 61K, but after it “cooks” it will swell up to 125K. Look above the “extract” box to see the before and after sizes. Make sure that the disk has enough open space to accept the unstuffed file.

Shareware Documents: You’ve just gotten a copy of “SuperDuper DA” and you want to find out what it is and how to use it. The title could mean anything (or nothing), so what do you do now? Go back to the disk and look for a shareware document (file) that will answer your questions. Frequently the document will share the item’s name, i.e., “SuperDuper doc” or be in the same folder and be a “Teach Text” or a “Read Me.”

Now that you have located the document, open it and read it. Unfortunately for people new to Mac, that can be one of the hardest things to do. If you look in front of the document name you will see an icon. If it looks like an application icon (SuperDuper doc.) you’re in luck, by double clicking on it, it should open itself as an application and you will be able to read and/or print it. Mission accomplished.

However if the icon is a document (file) icon (SuperDuper doc.) more work is involved. You will have to have to find a word processor application (program) that can read the document. Most of the shareware documents that I have seen were written with either MacWrite or Word. If you have either of these applications installed on your hard drive (see note on hard drives below) you should be able to double click on the document and open it. If, like myself, you do not have these applications you will have to try to import the document into your word processing application. Now the fun begins.

Open your word processing application. Go to the FILE menu and select OPEN. A dialogue box will appear for you to select the disk, folder and document that you want to open. Do not be surprised if the document you want does not appear where it should be. This means that the document was written with another word processor, and your application can not “see” this document. It will have to change the document to a form that it can “see.” (see Figure II-2)

Look at the dialog box. There should be one (or more) selection or button that are labeled like “IMPORT,” “TEXT” or “TEXT WITH LINE BREAKS.” (on the right hand side of Figure II-2) By selecting this item you are telling your application to attempt to import a document (file). If your program can import the document its name will now appear in the selection box (  SuperDuper doc.) and you can open it like a regular document. If the document name still does not appear, your application is not able to import the document. If you have another word processor application you can try the same procedures with it. If that also fails you have run into a dead end. Come to the next meeting and ask someone to open the document with their program.

Some additional notes on opening mystery documents. Works v2.00a has been able to import and open most documents. WriteNow v2.0 has been able to open about half of the documents that I’ve tried. There are now programs such as Can Opener ($65+) that claims to be able to open any file regardless of what program was used to write the file.

Hard Drives — WARNING!!  — If you do not have a hard drive

with your system, Do not use another system that has a hard drive. Once you have used a hard drive and know how much easier and quicker all your work is with a hard drive, you will become so frustrated without one that you will gladly sell two of your kids and the dog in order to get a hard drive. (Please note: HMUG does not approve of this, however the price for hard drives has been coming down recently, so you may not have to sell the dog)

Keyboard Commands

Shift-Clicking: One way to select a number of different objects is with the selection rectangle (which is used by holding down the mouse button as you drag around your selection). Shift-clicking is another essential technique. Normally when you click on something to select it, the item you selected last is automatically deselected. If you hold down the shift key, previously selected items stay selected. You can see how useful this would be. Let’s say you’re working with the Font/DA Mover and want to copy fifteen fonts into the System file. Instead of having to select one, click on the Copy button, select another, hit the Copy button, and so on; you must select all fifteen by shift-clicking on each one, hit the Copy button once and let the copying take place.

Shift-Clicking Text: Shift-clicking also can be used to select large portions of continuous material like text. Let’s say you want to select the whole MacWrite document. You’d click in front of the first character in the document, then use the scroll bar to move to the end of the document, position the I-beam after the last character, hold the shift key down, and click again. This causes everything between the two clicks - the whole document in this case - to be selected. Shift-clicking works in a similar manner in spreadsheets: if you click in one cell, then shift-click in another, a rectangle of cells will be selected, with those two cells in the corners.

Rebuilding the desktop file: If a disk bombs when inserted, you may still be able to recover the information it contains by rebuilding the desktop file on the disk. This file contains special information which tells your Macintosh where to find your files on the surface of the disk. Occasionally, this file may become damaged and will need to be reconstructed by the Macintosh before the disk can be used. To do this, hold down the option key while inserting the disk and keep it held down. A message will appear asking if you want to rebuild the desktop. Click on Yes. If the recovery succeeds, the desktop will appear after a minute or two (how long it takes depends on the number of files in the disk).

Recovering trashed disks: If you can’t, or don’t need to, recover the data from a trashed disk, here’s a way to at least try to recycle it, so you can use it for new data. Hold down the option key while inserting the trashed disk. You’ll get the standard dialog box asking you if you want to initialize the disk. Click on the selection you prefer. The trashed disk should now initialize with no further problems. If this doesn’t work, your disk is really trashed and you should recycle it as a high-tech coaster for drinks.

Closing multiple windows: You can create a real mess on your desktop if you open several folders to look for a specific file. Instead of clicking the close box on each window, you can tell the Macintosh to close them all at once. Just hold down the option key when you click on the first window’s close box and like magic all the rest will automatically close; you’ll be returned to an empty desktop - with no open windows - in much less time than it would otherwise take.

Dragging unselected windows: It can be annoying always to have to select a window before moving it. To move a window that’s not active on the desktop, just hold down the command key (  ) while dragging it. The window will stay unselected even after it is moved.

Dialog box shortcuts: If you do not want to take your hands off the keyboard when an Open dialog box appears, you can use these keyboard shortcuts. Instead of using the mouse to select a file, use the up and down arrows to move through the list of files or folders, to move to the end of the list, to move up through a hierarchy of folders. Option down arrow to move down through a hierarchy of folder is the same as clicking on the Open button.

Alphabetizing files with “View by name”: Here is a way to organize all the icons in a window alphabetically. Create a new folder on the desktop, open it, and select View by Name from the View menu. Then open the folder you want to organize and choose Select All from the Edit menu (or press-A key), and drag all the icons out of the folder and into the new folder. Go to the closed old folder and then to the View menu and select View by Icon. Open the new folder on the desktop. Choose Select All from the Edit menu and drag the icons back to the old folder. Throw away the new folder you created. Go back to your old folder and your files and folders will now be arranged alphabetically from left to right.

Easy way to put away files: If you have a file out on the desktop that you want to put away, you don’t have to drag it back to its original folder (which can be quite a task if it’s nested several folders deep). Just select the file icon, then choose Put Away from the File menu. The file will scurry back to wherever it came from.

Duplicating a file between folders: The Macintosh only duplicates a file if you move it from one disk to another (leaving a copy on the source disk as well as on the destination disk); when you drag it from one folder to another on the same disk, the file actually moves (that is, it disappears from the source folder). Sometimes that is what you want, but you do have a choice: if you hold down the option key when dragging the icon, the Macintosh will leave a copy of the file in the source folder as well as in the destination folder.

Locking documents with “Get info”: The File menu’s Get Info option tells you many things about a file including its size, creation date, type and the amount of space it uses on the disk, and if the file is locked. You can also lock a file with the Get Info window. To lock a file simply click on the box marked Locked in the window. To unlock the document simply choose Get Info again and click on the Locked box. The X in the box will disappear and you’ll be able to modify the document and save it under its own name. You can lock and unlock documents as often as you like.

Overriding file locking: If you want to throw away a file which is locked, without going through the process of unlocking the file with the Get Info box, there is a shortcut. Hold down the option key while you select the file, then continue to hold down as you drag the file to the Trash. This will suppress the file locking while the file is deleted from your disk. Note: If you do this while you throw away an application, it will also suppress the standard “Are you really sure you want to throw this away?” dialog box.

Switch launching MultiFinder: You can temporarily switch from using the Finder to using MultiFinder without restarting your Macintosh. Just open your System Folder and hold down option key while you double-click on the MultiFinder icon. MultiFinder will launch and become active for the remainder of your session, but will not be active the next time you boot your Macintosh.

Temporarily disabling MultiFinder: If you normally use MultiFinder, and for some reason you want to disable it temporarily, hold down the command key as the Macintosh starts up (keep holding it down until the desktop comes up on the screen). This forces the Finder to take over, but leaves MultiFinder still set for start-up the next time.

Defragmenting disks: Hard disks write data wherever there’s room on the disk and this results in files being fragmented - that is, parts of the same file are written in different places on the surface of the disk. When this happens often enough, the access speed of the disk slows way down. Then it’s time to defragment. This involves rewriting all the files to your disk so they occupy contiguous portions of the disk. There are a couple of programs that do that - DiskExpress™ and PowerUP™ are two of the more popular ones DiskExpress™ has been around longer and costs less, but PowerUP™ seems to work faster.

Ejecting floppy disks: There are several ways to eject floppy disks. The most common method is to drag the disk’s icon to the Trash. You can also choose Eject from the File menu, or hit the Eject button in the Save As or Open dialog box. Or you can use the following keyboard commands to eject any disk, including the start-up disk, regardless of whether you’re on the desktop or in an application. CONTROL-E ejects a selected disk(s), CONTROL-SHIFT-1 ejects the disk in the internal drive (or right side drive on a Mac II), and CONTROL-SHIFT-2 ejects the disk in the external drive (or left side drive on a Macintosh II). When you use these keyboard commands from the Finder, a dimmed version of the disk’s icon remains on the desktop. When you throw the disk’s icon in the trash, all trace of it disappears from the desktop.

No colons in filenames: You can use just about any character or symbol you want in the name of a Macintosh file, except for the colon If you try to put it in, the Macintosh will automatically turn it into a hyphen This is because the colon is used as a special character internally by the Macintosh to maintain the list of file names in the desktop file.

Part 2: Sources of Additional Tips and Shortcuts.

The Macintosh Bible, 2nd edition -1988-89. This is one of the best books of tips and shortcuts for the Macintosh. The authors have released not only a second edition, but also two updates in an effort to keep this fine book useful.

MacUser and MacWorld are monthly magazines which have sections devoted to tips and shortcuts.

Owners manuals. When all else fails, re-read the manuals. Re-reading the manuals after you have used your applications for some time can be especially helpful, because items that you missed, or did not understand clearly, may now jump out at you.

The Fully Powered Mac - 1988. This book deals not so much with “tips and shortcuts“ as the Bible, but more with ways to organize and personalize your Mac. Topics range from basic file and disk organization, to step by step procedures using Resedit to modify your System.

Huntsville-Madison Public Library - Main Branch: The library has two Macs which can be reserved and used (at the library) by any adult who has a library card (which is free). One of the Macs has a CD reader(Compact Disk). These CDs are an external disk drive and work like a floppy disk, except instead of 400K or 800K they have up to 600 Meg (about 250,000 typed pages) of information on a READ ONLY disk. The library has several disk (Educorp. PB MUG, Whole Earth Catalogue etc.) with a amazing amount of information and/or shareware on them. There are two problems with CDs. One is that they are slow. The second problem is that after a couple of hours your mind suffers from information overload, melts and oozes out of your ears.

II.c. • Newsletter Advertising Rates

( as of November 12, 1991 )

Full page (7.5"x10")

1 issue = $21.50    3 issues = $43.00

6 issues = $80.00  12 issues = $150.00

Half page (7.5"x5")

1 issue = $16.00    3 issues = $32.00

6 issues = $60.00  12 issues = $105.00

Quarter page (3.75"x5")

1 issue = $12.00    3 issues = $24.00

6 issues = $40.00  12 issues = $75.00

Eighth of a page (3.75"x2.5")

1 issue = $8.00     3 issues = $16.00

6 issues = $30.00  12 issues = $55.00

Business Card Size (2.5"x1.5")

1 issue = $4.00     3 issues = $8.00

6 issues = $15.00  12 issues = $25.00

For addition information call George Leach 837-4212.

• Ads submitted must be, perferably, a file acceptable to PageMaker or camera ready art.

• Multiple insertions must be consecutive to obtain the reduced rate.

• Add 10% for guaranteed position except for the Label Page. No ads can be placed on the front page.

II.d. • Access to Services

Don’t you wish you had a scanner, tape backup unit, compact disk reader, photo slide maker, color laser printer, optical character reader, and all those other expensive goodies as the big boys have? Don’t despair. Many of these devices are available to you as services. If you don’t need these services every day and if you can schedule your needs, you may find it cheaper to rent or borrow the service.

Compact Disks and Readers for the Macintosh - The Huntsville Public Library has some Macintosh Computers that are available for public use at the Library. The Library has a good collection of Compact Disks with Macintosh usable files on them just for the asking. Bring lots of floppy diskettes if you are thinking about copying individual files for your own use - each compact diskette will hold up to about 600 megabytes of Mac files.

Tape Backup Services - HMUG Member Tom Konantz, Systems Operator of the <TBD> Bulletin Board System (see Telecommunications) has purchased a tape backup unit for maintaining the <TBD> BBS Hard Disk(s) with their many public domain files. On occasion Tom has brought that tape backup system to HMUG meetings for demonstration. Tom has indicated a willingness to provide tape backup services for your hard drive for a reasonable service fee. You need to contact Tom to make any arrangements for such services.

Scanning Services - Take a look in the Yellow Pages of the phone book under Printers. Several provide scanning services, e. g. Desk Top Printing, @ 539-6776, Third Wave Technologies @ 880-1622, and probably more as time goes on.

Optical Character Recognition - Printing/Desk Top Publishing services offering scanning services often have optical character recognition (scanning a printed page of text and out-putting to a diskette an ASCII file that can be read into your word processor). Typically this may cost about $7.50 per page for scanning and converting (without any editing). Again, take a look in the Yellow Pages of the phone book under Printers.

Desk Top Publishing - Again, take a look in the Yellow Pages of the phone book under Printers. Several specifically advertise these services.

Laser Printing - Once more to the Yellow pages, e.g., Kinko’s has two Macintoshes with most popular software hooked up to a Laser printer. They charge by the hour for self-service at the Macintoshes and by the page for the Laser Printers.

Laser Printer Cartridge Refills - Refill cartridges for Laser printers are expensive. Many people have had very satisfactory results in having the cartridges refilled at about half the cost of new cartridges. You can even get color toner put into the cartridges. Remember to include the felt cover roller cleaner pad (with the green handle) when you turn in your old cartridge. Check your Yellow Pages under Computers for these services.

Apple ImageWriter I and II Ribbon Rejuvenation - You won’t find this one in the Yellow Pages, but you can gently open the case of your ribbon cartridge to find many folds of ribbon semi-neatly stowed inside. Watch that the roller in the little window doesn’t jump out of position when you open the case. Spray WD-40 liberally over the exposed ribbon, close the case, and store the ribbon cartridge in a sandwich baggie for a few days while the WD-40 acts as a solvent for the ink, redistributing the ink onto those two tracks that have dried out from repeated impact/ink transfers by the print head. You can get several reuses from a printer ribbon this way with no ill effects to your print head.

Slides, Overheads, Color Hard Copies - Check the classified section of MacWeek and of the Macintosh magazines. Several advertisers list 24 hour turnaround on these services.

Other Places to Look - One good place to look for limited access to some of these services is right in your own Huntsville Macintosh Users Group. Perhaps someone else in the group has, on his own or through his place of employment on a non-interference basis, limited access to some of these services. Check your employer, too. If you are not working on classified projects, your company or the government agency with whom you are associated may have equipment available for “demonstration” access. MSFC has a Computer Technical Center with much equipment and most of the latest software for demonstration or on site occasional use.

Group Purchases - Organized as required. The club receives special discount offers throughout the year.

II.e. • A Brief Communications Tutorial

(published by permission of the

Washington Apple Pi, Ltd., Users Group.)

Communication between computers is one of the most powerful and useful things you can do with your computer. It is also one of the most difficult, particularly for novices, because it requires that the user master a series of steps: connecting the computer with a modem, learning how to use telecommunications software, calling into a telecommunications service, and, finally, getting something useful from that service. The following tutorial was written by George Kinal of the Washington Apple Pi.

1. Introduction: Forms of Computer Communications.

Most communication between personal computers uses ordinary telephone lines, and that is what we will primarily deal with here. The device that allows the computer to do this is called a “modem,” short for “modulator- demodulator.” The modem modulates digital signals from the computer into sounds that can be transmitted over ordinary telephone lines. At the other end another modem demodulates those sounds into the digital electronic signals the computer is accustomed to using. Many of the same techniques, however, apply to connecting two computers right next to each other (called “direct-connect”), as well as to communications over radio (usually amateur radio) frequencies.

Computers communicate with each other using several established sets of “rules of the road,” called “protocols.” One of the most fundamental rules of these protocols is whether data transmissions occur at times determined by a clock or timing signal, or whether they can occur whenever one of the computers has something to send. The former protocol is called “synchronous.” Most communication with large mainframe computers, especially those made by IBM, is synchronous. (You will also hear the terms: bi-sync, SNA, SDLC, 3270 or 3780 in this connection.) If you have a need to make your Apple communicate with such a system, it is possible but expensive. The remainder of this tutorial will not have any relevance to synchronous communications, because it is seldom used by personal computers.

Most computer communications, particularly personal computer communications, are “asynchronous.” Asynchronous communications are not synchronized to a clock or timing signal (hence the name). Knowing that your computer uses “async” is, however, only part of the story. There are a number of other things you need to know before you can start to connect with other systems.

The first is the speed at which your computer (or your modem) transmits data. The most common speed today is 2400 bits per second (bps), sometimes (but erroneously) called 1200 “baud.” (“Baud” actually refers to the number of discrete signal state changes per second. Sometimes baud and bps are identical—300 baud is indeed 300 bps, however, 1200 bps is actually 600 baud).

In order to communicate over telephone lines, the modems at each end have to use an agreed-upon set of tones. These “agreements” are also governed by protocols. Virtually all 1200 bps modems in the United States today use Bell 212A protocol. (There is also something called 202 protocol, which is discussed below in connection with the Novation Apple-Cat modem, one of the few modems that uses it.)

Other common speeds now in use are 300 bps (using Bell 103J protocol) and 1200 bps. Speeds of 4800 and 9600 using direct connections are now quite common (you use 9600 bps to communicate with the ImageWriter printer, for example), but to send signals over telephone lines at these speeds requires modems that, at present, are very expensive.

Another aspect of computer communications is something called “duplex.” Unfortunately, duplex has two meanings. Its most technical meaning refers to whether both parties can transmit and receive at the same time. A system that permits this is referred to as “full duplex.” Telephones are examples of full duplex systems, since both you and the person on the other end can be speaking at the same time. (Understanding each other under such circumstances is however, a separate matter.) Citizens’ band radio is “half duplex,” in that only one party can send at a time. There has to be a convention for when one party is through sending and is ready to receive for a time. In CB radio this is done by saying “over.” Virtually all computer communications are full duplex, as the term is used in this context.

The other meaning of “duplex” refers to whether the sending computer displays the characters it sends on its own monitor, or whether it expects the other computer to echo the characters back. The former is called “half duplex,” and the latter is called “full duplex.” When your system has the responsibility of echoing the other computer’s characters back to it, your system is using “echoplex.” Most bulletin board systems and on-line services use echoplex, which means that when you call them you should use full duplex. Half duplex is generally used only when you are communicating directly with a friend’s personal computer. This depends on the communications software that each of you is using. If you use half duplex on a system that is using echoplex, every character will appear twice (lliikkee tthhiiss), once because the character is put on the screen by your computer and once because the character is sent back to you by the host computer.

Thus far we have not addressed how characters themselves are actually sent. Each character, regardless of speed or duplex setting, can be formatted in a number of ways. One of the most basic is the number of data bits. Each character consists of a number of data bits, usually eight (the number of bits in a byte, the basic unit of computing) but sometimes seven.

Some computer systems use a “parity” bit to give the receiving computer a quick way of checking to see if data were lost or garbled in transmission. For example, a system transmitting using “even” parity would count the number of “1” bits during transmission of a character and, if necessary, transmit a parity bit of “1” to make the number of “1” bits come out even. If the character already had an even number of “1” bits, the transmitting computer would send a parity bit of “0.” The receiving computer could look at the character as received and determine whether a bit had been changed in transmission. A moment’s thought will reveal the weakness in such a scheme, which is why more powerful error-checking protocols, discussed below, were developed. Because parity checking is so primitive, most computer systems today do not transmit a parity bit. This is called “no parity.”

A final formatting option is the number of stop bits that are transmitted with each character. One of the requirements of asynchronous transmission is that there has to be a “start bit,” which is a signal that tells the receiving computer that something is coming. But there also has to be a “stop bit” to say that the character has been transmitted. Some systems use two stop bits at the end of each character, but by far the most common is one stop bit.

The number of data bits, parity, and the number of stop bits are usually referred to in one breath by an abbreviation such as “8-N-1,” which means eight data bits, no parity and one stop bit. 8-N-1 is, incidentally, virtually universal today. If you do not know the character format of a computer system you are calling for the first time, try 8-N-1. Occasionally one comes across systems that are “7-E-1”, seven data bits, even parity, and one stop bit. 7-E-1 does not work, however, with some of the popular error-checking protocols.

As a consequence of 8-N-1, each character transmitted over a modem has ten bits: one start bit, eight data bits and one stop bit. Thus, transmission speed in bits per second is effectively ten times the transmission speed in characters per second: 1200 bps is 120 characters per second; 300 bps is 30 characters per second.

Characters themselves are sent using a standard called “ASCII” (pronounced ASK-ee), short for “American Standard Code for Information Interchange.” ASCII uses numerical values from 0 and 127 to represent all letters (“A” is 65, “a” is 97), numbers (“0” is 48, “1” is 49), other characters (the “space” character is 32) and command symbols (the “return” is 13). The numerical values from 128 to 255 are also sometimes used for non-standard characters. For example, the Macintosh uses values greater than 127 to represent international characters.

To confuse matters, some computers transmit (or want to receive) ASCII characters using 128-255 rather than 0-127. If your transmission comes across as nonsense characters, and if you are sure that you are using the correct speed, number of data bits, parity and number of stop bits, see if this could be the problem.

When you call up a bulletin board or CompuServe or America On-Line, you are operating in what might be called “free-wheeling” ASCII. This is sometimes referred to as “TTY” mode, short for teletype, an early computer communications device. These services can be called using nothing more than a portable “dumb terminal” such as the Texas Instruments Silent 700. You type a character on the keyboard and it gets printed on your monitor or paper.

Since computers can usually transmit data faster than you can read it, or faster than your printer can print it, most systems recognize a protocol called “X-On/X-Off.” You may be aware of how Control-S stops the listing of a BASIC program. In most systems, the Control-S is the so-called “X-Off” character, which tells the transmitting computer to stop sending. The counterpart command to resume sending is Control-Q, called “X-On.”

Using X-On/X-Off as a means of flow control is one way of transmitting data, but it does not have any way of correcting for errors in transmission caused by noisy telephone lines or other problems. To get around this limitation, there is a class of protocols that perform verified file transfers. By “file transfer” we mean the sending of a file from one computer to the other computer, usually to a disk on that computer. “Verified” means that as each block of data is received, its accuracy is checked. If the data is not received correctly, the block is sent again. Verified transfer is not essential for most ordinary text transmission, but is important when sending “binary” files including computer applications and formatted files.

The most popular error-correcting protocol for computers today is properly called the Christensen protocol, after its developer Ward Christensen, but it is more commonly know as “XMODEM,” after one of the CP/M programs that first used it. It is commonly used to download files from bulletin boards and information services such as CompuServe and GEnie.

There are commercial communications programs on the market that use other verified transfer protocols. Some of them are better (in some respects) than Christensen’s but they are all incompatible with one another. One public-domain protocol that is popular is KERMIT. It is rarely used between two microcomputers, but can be useful for downloading from large computers.

2. What Do I Need

Your Apple does not come equipped with a built-in modem equipped with its own telephone cord and plug, unlike some computers on the market. In order to turn it into a communications device, you usually need three things:

• A Modem

• Communications Software (program)

• An Interface Card (depends on your computer)

Incidentally, you should be careful about compatibility among these three elements. As with most computer-oriented applications, it is generally good advice to choose the software first. Then, be sure that the interface and the modem you choose can be accommodated by that software.

The biggest problem with giving specific examples or recommendations is that whatever is written can be obsolete within a year. The Apple Super Serial Card and the Macintosh have had a big influence on the overall picture of Apple-oriented communications.

Modems: As noted above, the modem converts the digital signals from the computer into audio tones that can be sent over a telephone line (and it also converts audio tones back into digital signals). At one time virtually all microcomputer modems operated at 300-bps. The market for 300-bps modems is virtually non-existent; most new modem buyers get a modem capable of using triple speed (300/1200/2400-bps). Modems of interest to Apple owners fall into three categories:

Single-Board Interfaces/Modems: A single-board modem plugs into one of the Apple’s slots, usually slot 2. D.C. Hayes invented this kind of modem, though its MicroModem II no longer dominates the Apple communications scene as it did in the early 1980’s. The Hayes MicroModem is a 300-bps modem with the usual “smart” features such as autodialing (in which the modem dials the bulletin board or on-line service), and is usually sold with the Hayes Smartcom software package.

The Novation Apple-Cat is functionally very similar to the Micromodem. All sorts of optional accessories, such as a printer port, tone decoder, BSR controller, telephone handset, etc., are available. This modem operates at 300 bps, as well as at 1200-bps using a half-duplex “202” protocol. (Warning—this mode is only useful for communicating with other Apple-Cats and those now-extremely-rare computer centers that support 202-mode.) The Apple-Cat also can be used for “Deafnet” communications to connect with the so-called Weitbrecht modem used by the hearing-impaired. The Apple-Cat comes with a very competent software package called Com-Ware. Novation offers an upgrade module for this modem that adds 1200-bps full duplex capability (using the standard 212A protocol), but it is usually cheaper now to buy an external 300/1200/2400 modem than to add the Novation 212 upgrade.

The Prometheus 1200A is an internal modem for the II and IIe that operates at both 300 and 1200-bps. Electrically (and as far as any software is concerned), it behaves just as an Apple Super Serial card connected to an external Prometheus 1200 modem, but without the clock that the later has.

Dumb Modems: No manufacturer actually calls its modems “dumb,” but it’s a good distinction to make relative to so-called “smart” modems. Dumb modems are external modems that connect to the computer’s serial port. (The serial port uses a communications protocol called RS-232C.) You can still find at garage sales and surplus outlets 300-bps acoustically-coupled modems—the kind that you place your telephone handset into when connection has been made. Many criticisms have been leveled against acoustic couplers, but unless you work in a high noise area, couplers work pretty well. Some of them, in fact, were designed and built for commercial use, and have excellent circuit designs.

Then there are what might be called the “commercial grade” modems built by Racal-Vadic, Anderson-Jacobson, UDS, Rixon, GDC, CODEX and AT&T. You probably wouldn’t want to buy one of these for home use, but for some business applications they are better suited than the “consumer grade” modems, since they tend to be designed for 24-hour use, and have more sophisticated circuit designs.

Smart Modems: Most modems in use on personal computers today are so called “smart” modems. Most people associate this type of modem with D.C. Hayes, although who invented the smart modem is a matter of some dispute. A company called Bizcomp holds a patent on some of the smart modem technology. Still, “Smartmodem” is a Hayes trade name.

Smart modems (used in the generic sense) have built-in microprocessors that interpret sequences of characters sent to them, and act accordingly. Thus, they can be commanded to dial a phone number, to answer a call, to hang up, and so on. Many manufacturers now make modems that are “Hayes compatible,” meaning they respond to the exact same commands as the Hayes products. Many software programs today are designed to work with “Hayes compatible” modems, and because of this, many people may want to make sure that any modem they buy is Hayes compatible.

Interface Cards: (Only Apple II and IIe owners need to read this. For Apple IIc and IIGS owners the choice has been made for you—your serial interface is essentially the same as the Apple Super Serial card. Likewise for Macintosh owners the serial port is built in.)

For a long time, the demand for serial interface cards was pretty small. Most printers used parallel interfaces, and virtually all Apple owners who wanted to communicate used the Micro-modem. That situation changed dramatically in 1983 with the new series of Apple printers, which used serial interfaces and with lower-cost 1200-bps modems.

The Apple Super Serial Card (SSC) took the place of two older Apple products, the Apple Serial card (meant for printers, not modems), and the Apple Communications card. The SSC is a good product, and has been “cloned” by other manufacturers. For example, the Seri-All and the CCS 7711 are electrically equivalent to the Super Serial Card in most, but not all, respects, and they sell for less than the SSC.

At garage sales, etc., you may still run across older interface cards at very low cost. The CCS 7710 and the SSM ASIO, AIO, and AIO-II were all popular enough that most software can be configured for them. Be careful: some of the newest software assumes you have the SSC or an equivalent. You would be best off to choose and check software first!

Most serial cards contain built-ion firmware that supports a very rudimentary terminal program. This allows you to communicate with other computers, but you cannot send or receive files unless you have communications software.

Software: Without question the most popular advanced communications software package for the Apple II family is ASCII Express-the Professional (AE-Pro), supplied by United Software Industries. There is very little this communications program cannot do. It supports the Christensen protocol, and has a built-in editor. AE-Pro can be purchased in DOS 3.3 or ProDOS versions.

If you have CP/M on your Apple, you really should get the MODEM7/XMODEM programs. The latest version, MODEM 7/40, is available through WAP’s public-domain software collection is several versions. MODEM 7/40 will do many of the same things as AE-Pro, and, being public-domain, is available at an unbeatable price. This software will also allow you to download programs from the various RCPM (remote CP-M) systems. Some WAP members have a library of hundreds of public domain programs acquired in this way.

If your Apple is used commercially, and your communications involve both other (non-Apple) microcomputers and long-distance transfer, you might want to look at BLAST from Comm. Research Group, Baton Rouge. The protocol this program uses is not Christensen, but is more efficient and allows simultaneous transfers in both directions.

COMM-TERM is a very simple communications package. It’s enough to get you started, and does a bit more than the firmware on an interface card. For example, it will receive data and write it out to disk, or it will send out a DOS 3.3 text file.

Many communications programs are available for the Mac, for example, Hayes’ SmartCom II for the Mac. But probably the most popular program is the “shareware” product Red Ryder. Use it, and if you decide to, keep it.

The consensus is that Apple’s own communications products, such as Apple Access II and Mac Terminal, are not up to the quality or value of the independent brand products.

3. What is It All Good For

I list, “for the record,” five major categories of uses for computer communications:

1. Calling computer bulletin boards, This is a great way to have questions answered (“Help!”), to keep up on the latest Apple developments, to buy or sell hardware and software, and to download software, text, graphics, and so on.

2. Calling commercial on-line services such as The Source, CompuServe, DIALOG, Dow-Jones Information Service, or GEnie. It’s impossible to even begin to list all the things you can do on these systems.

3. Communications with other Apples, other microcomputers (including portable “laptops”), word processors, typesetting services, or to exchange programs or text.

4. Dialing in to specific mainframe computers such as your employer or university uses. Using computer communications allows you to work at home.

5. Electronic mail - you can use services such as MCI Mail, Western Union’s Easy-Link and others to send messages, including international telexes. The networks such as Telenet, Tymnet, UNINET, and GE also provide a variety of electronic mail services, as do CompuServe and the The Source.

REFERENCES: The best selling general reference on microcomputer communications is, The Complete Handbook of Personal Computer Communications by A. Glossbrenner, published by St. Martin’s Press. Another good book for prospective AE-Pro users is Joy of Telecommunication by Washington Apple Pi’s own Bill Cook (Dell Trade #54412). If you need to understand the RS-232 interface, consult The RS-232 Solution by Joe Campbell, SYBEX Books, 1984.

II.f. • The Macintosh Family

Lisa — In 1983 Apple introduced a revolutionary $10,000 computer built around the Motorola 68000 microprocessor running at 4 MHz and containing 512K of RAM. Taking some cues from the Xerox Star, it offered an icon-based interface and integrated software. Unfortunately, the high price, non-standard disk-drives, and relatively slow software hindered sales. However, the choice of the 68000 chip (as distinct from the 8088 line upon which subsequent MS-DOS machines were to be built) was to direct the Macintosh family into the future.

Macintosh (128K) — In January of 1984, Apple introduced the Macintosh, a much less expensive and only slightly less powerful version of the Lisa. Originally sporting only 128K of RAM, it was one of the first mass-distributed computers to offer the now-standard 3.5-inch disk drives. However, only one side of each disk was used, so each disk could store only 400K of data. For Lisa owners, Apple offered “MacWorks” to allow Mac software to run on that machine as well. Like the Lisa, the Mac used the 68000 microprocessor but ran somewhat faster, 8MHz. It included a 64K ROM which contained Apple’s famous ToolBox firmware. This novel software gave the Mac its strength and forced upon program developers the uniformity in program appearance and operation that has been the cause for the Mac’s success.

The Macintosh XL (ex-Lisa) was the new name assigned to the Lisa after refitting it with 3.5 inch drives. Apple offered a conversion kit to permit the Lisa to display the Mac’s square screen pixels instead of the original Lisa’s rectangular pixels.

The Macintosh 512, offered first in 1985 quadrupled the RAM on the earliest Macintoshes, which made the machine able to run more complex programs.

The Macintosh 512E was a new version of the Mac 512 with a built-in double-sided disk drive and expanded 128K ROM. A major detriment to the Macintosh’s development was the lack of a hard disk. The 512E offered only a serial interface. Apple began marketing a sluggish serial 20 megabyte hard disk which it made obsolete within six months of introduction!

The Macintosh Plus appeared in 1986. It featured a full megabyte (1024K) of RAM, expandable to four megabytes, and the 128K ROMS found in the 512E. It came with a SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) connector which enabled the Plus to communicate with up to seven external devices, including the fastest hard disks available, scanners, tape back-up systems and CD Roms. The Mac Plus “legitimized” the Macintosh in the eyes of many people who viewed Apple’s graphics interface as somehow less “serious” than that used on other computers.

Introduced in March 1987, the Macintosh SE featured a megabyte of RAM, expandable to four megabytes. The ROM grew to 256K. The SE used a IIGS-style keyboard and the Apple Desktop Bus. It was the first modular-style Mac to offer a built-in hard disk drive (20 MB). It was also the first modular style Mac to be expandable (hence its name System Expandable) due to its single expansion slot.

The Macintosh II was the first member of Apple’s next generation Macintosh. It used a 15.7-megahertz Motorola 68020 processor with a 68881 math co-processor. It featured 256K of ROM and 1024K of RAM theoretically expandable to two gigabytes using the 8 single in-line memory module (SIMM) RAM slots. It had six Nubus slots and was the first Macintosh to support color, which it does in dazzling style and many different shades of gray. The sound capabilities of the Mac II exceed even those of the IIGS. The Mac II could be equipped with an internal hard disk drive. By adding a 68851 Paged Memory Management Unit (PMMU) chip, you can use virtual memory to your Mac under System 7.

The Macintosh IIx is a somewhat more powerful version of the Mac II. It was the first Mac based on the 68030 microprocessor which includes a built-in Memory Management Unit (MMU), and both instruction and data caches. The MMU is required to run A/UX, Apple’s version of the UNIX operating system. It included the 68882 floating-point unit (FPU) for math coprocessing.

The Macintosh IIcx appeared in early 1989. It is a trimmed down version of the II machines containing only three slots. It has a desktop foot print little bigger than the Plus/SE machines. It comes with a 68030 microprocessor and 68882 FPU, also running at 16 MHz.

At the same time, Apple upgraded its SE line with the Macintosh SE/30, a 16-MHz 68030 based version of the SE family. Unlike the SE or Plus which have only 4 SIMM slots, the SE/30 has 8, enabling it to use up to 8 MB of RAM. It contains one processor direct slot for additional expansion. The Mac SE/30 has been the only modular Mac to be the fastest Mac since the introduction of the II family. It was a bit faster than the IIcx since it did not have to watch any NuBus slots.

The Macintosh SE/30 and IIci were the first Macintoshes to feature the the 1.44MB SuperDrive, now standard on all Macintosh systems, which allows users to easily exchange data files between Macintosh, OS/2, MS-DOS, and Apple II ProDOS systems.

Hitting the market in late 1989, the Macintosh IIci runs at a brisk 25 MHz, and has the same foot print and 68030 and 68882 chips that its baby brother, the IIcx, includes. The Mac IIci was the first Mac to offer a built-in color video interface and a slot for a cache card. The built-in video interface frees up one of its three NuBus slots from this burden.

At the same time that the IIci was introduced, Apple brought the Macintosh Portable to the marketplace. The Mac Portable uses a fast 68000 running at 16 MHz, making it about twice as fast as a Plus/SE and half as fast as a II or IIcx. The portable could be operated from long-life rechargable lead-acid batteries. The active-matrix liquid crystal display was unusually crisp for a portable. It included a track ball as well as a mouse. It also featured a modem slot, a RAM slot which used expensive low-power static RAM, a ROM slot, and a processor direct slot. The Portable came with 1 MB of RAM, expandable to 9 MB. It also had the innovative Power Manager software which put the Portable to sleep or disabled certain functions after a time to conserve power. The Mac Portable disappointed many uses by having an overly large footprint and weighing too much, causing it to be nicknamed the “Luggable.” Later in its life, the Portable was upgraded to include a backlit screen.

The Macintosh IIfx was for quite some time Apple’s fastest machine by a long shot. It had 40-MHz 68030 and 68882 processors as well as several peripheral processors to off-load the main processor. It included two 20-MHz I/O processors, a SCSI direct memory access (DMA) chip to speed hard disk transfers, and six NuBus slots. Unfortunately, the system software never took advantage of the DMA. The IIfx was probably the last of Apple’s large footprint, six-slotted machines.

None of the above machines are currently manufactured. The current Macintosh family consists of those machines described below.

On October 15, 1990, Apple announced the Macintosh Classic, Macintosh II LC, and Macintosh IIsi. The goal of the new systems was to offer an affordable family of computers. These three systems were the first to have sound input/output, allowing users to play back voice messages and sounds. The sound I/O feature includes a microphone that allows users to record and store their voice in Macintosh documents in much the same way handwritten notes are added to printed documents. Stereo jacks are also included.

The Macintosh Classic features improved performance (30 percent faster) over the Macintosh Plus. It uses an 8-megahertz (MHz) Motorola 68000 microprocessor. It has 1 MB of RAM soldered to the motherboard, and with a RAM expansion card, is expandable up to 4 MB of RAM. However, it has no additional expansion capability. The Classic was basically introduced to provide a low-cost computer for Apple to offer to the consumer electronics market. It is essentially a Plus with low manufacturing costs.

The Macintosh II LC computer comes with 2MB of RAM (expandable up to 10MB) and built-in support for a choice of monitors (Macintosh 12-inch RGB Display, (up to 256 colors), Macintosh 12-inch Monochrome Display (up to 16 shades of gray), and AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Monitor (up to 16 colors). It uses a 16-MHz 68020 microprocessor. The Mac II LC was the first Macintosh to use a high-end 68000-family microprocessor but not include the 6888X math coprocessor, much to the consternation of Mac developers. A processor direct slot (PDS) gives users the ability to customize their system with additional capabilities such as an accelerator, math coprocessor, networking, cache card, and other options.

The Macintosh IIsi uses the Motorola 68030 microprocessor which runs at 20-megahertz (MHz). The Motorola 68882 FPU is optional on the IIsi. It also contains only one expansion slot for an industry standard NuBus card or an 030 Direct Slot card. Either of these adapter card includes a 68882 math co-processor. Like other Macintosh II computers, the IIsi can support more than one monitor at a time through an optional video expansion card.

On October 21, 1991, Apple introduced the largest number of computers at any single time. These were the Macintosh Classic II, the Macintosh Quadra 700 and 900, and the Macintosh PowerBook 100, 140, and 170.

The Macintosh Classic II is essentially a low-cost Mac II in a modular-style case. It has a 16-MHz 68030 processor, but with only a 16-bit bus as opposed to the SE/30’s 32-bit bus, it has a performance roughly equivalent to the 68020-based Mac II LC. It has limited expansion capabilities with its only expansion slot accommodating only an optional math coprocessor or a ROM card. It has 2 MB of RAM soldered to the motherboard, and is expandable up to 10 MB of RAM.

The Macintosh Quadra 700 and 900 are the first Macintoshes to feature the Motorola 68040 processor. The 68040 runs at 25 MHz, making it roughly twice as fast as a Mac IIfx. The 68040 has a built-in PMMU, FPU, and copyback caching. Copyback caching writes the contents to RAM only when needed to make room in the cache or when the system software forces it, whereas the writethrough caching used by the 68030 copies the cache’s contents to RAM immediately. This caching schem gives the 68040 higher speed than the 68030 but has presented some compatibility problems. The Quadras are also the first Mac to use the NuBus 90 SCSI bus which runs at 20 MHz, twice as fast as the NuBus slots in previous Macs. The Quadras are also the first Macs to offer built-in Ethernet for much faster networking. They also have separate video RAM so that video accesses can never conflict with regular accesses, thereby improving perfomance. Both machines have 32-bit video on the motherboard with up to 2 MB of video RAM. They both come with a minimum of 4 MB of RAM.

The Macintosh Quadra 700 fits in a IIci size box. It has only two NuBus slots and is expandable to 20 MB. The Macintosh Quadra 900 is the first Mac to be intended for standing operation, and as such is the first “tower” Mac. It has five NuBus slots and has 16 SIMM slots. Thus it is currently expandable to 64 MB, but its ROMs should allow expansion up to 256 MB. The Quadra 900 is intended to be usaable as a dedicated server. As such it is the first Mac to have a key switch. It can also accomodate up to four internal storage devices, such as hard drives, CD drives, and tape drives.

The Macintosh PowerBook 100, 140, and 170 are Apple’s newest line of portables. The major improvement is size and weight. These portable are truly portable. All three PowerBooks have backlit screens, but only the 170 has an active-matrix LCD screen. The 100 and 140 have a supertwist LCD scrren, sacrificing clarity for cost. All the PowerBooks come with AppleTalk Remote Access which allows users to dial into their machine and access its files. A 2400 data/9600 fax-send internal modem is available for all the portables. They also use pseudostatic RAM, which is much cheaper than the static RAM used in the original Portable. All come standard with 2 MB of RAM, expandable to 8 MB, but at least 4 MB is needed for easy use.

The Macintosh PowerBook 100 is the cheapest PowerBook, having only a 16-MHz 68000 processor and no internal floppy drive. An external drive is optional. The internal hard drive is only 20 MB in size. Its lead-acid battery lasts 2-4 hours. The Macintosh PowerBook 140 is the middle model, sporting a much more powerful 16-MHz 68030 processor, but no FPU. It comes with either a 20 MB or 40 MB hard drive and an internal floppy drive. It has a NiCad battery which lasts about 2-3 hours. The Macintosh PowerBook 170 is the most powerful of the Powerbooks, featuring a 25-MHz 68030 with FPU, internal floppy drive, 40 MB hard drive, backlit active-matrix display, a NiCad battery, and the internal modem standard.

II.g. • Virus Management on the Macintosh

by Dan Richard

This section covers:

• What is a Computer Virus and a Computer Worm?

• How to detect a virus.

• How to determine when and where a virus first appeared.

• How to get rid of a virus.

• How to protect your Macintosh from a virus.

• Where to get more information on virus and Macintosh?

What is a Computer VIRUS and a Computer WORM

Computer VIRUS — A routine or code that surreptitiously (made, done or acquired by stealth) copies itself into another program.

Computer WORM: A program that copies itself to other systems via a network. Mac is currently immune to WORMs. A WORM requires: 1) a multi-tasking system, 2) a network connection and, 3) a means of remote login.

How is this possible?

• In today’s computers, executable code (programs), can be manipulated like data.

• In modem operating systems, like VAX/VMS, PS/2 and Macintosh, the Operating Systems (OS) may be modified during start up or boot time. This allows for updates to the OS, i.e., new device drivers or new features. This modification is the primary path for a VIRUS to attack an operating system. Once the operating system is attacked, no user application is safe.

• UNIX, NOS and VM, are almost immune from a system virus, but not WORMs.

HOW to Detect a VIRUS

You should suspect you have a VIRUS when:

• You lose files without reason.

• Programs that previously worked, fail.

• Normal system functions stop working.

• Applications sizes are larger than normal and/or were modified in the last few days.

You know you have a VIRUS when:

• You run Virus RX (detection program) from a write protected disk and it lists infected files.

• You run N.O.M.A.D. from a write protected disk and it says you have to reinstall the system.

• You run ResEdit and find in an application the resources “nVIR”, “MEV#”, “ANTI”, “Hpat”, or other resources named after the infecting virus.

NOTE: Every application you run on an infected system also becomes infected, unless it is run from a write protected disk. Always run from a backup disk!

How to Determine when a Virus First Appeared

Once you have determined you are infected, you should find out where the infection came from. To help determine this you need to know just when the earliest infection appeared. The following steps will assist you in determining the earliest time and possible origin of the VIRUS.

1. Examine Finder’s last modification date. This date tells when the Finder was infected. The date the Finder was infected dates the introduction of the infection into your system.

2. Next look for an infected file that has an earlier modification date then the Finder. This will tell you the application which infected your system. If their is no infected file on your hard drive dated prior to the finder modification date, then you were infected from an application introduced from a floppy!

3. Try and remember which disks were in your system and which applications were executed or copied from that disk. Run a Virus Rx program (residing on a write protected disk) on all the disks that have been mounted without write protection since the infection.

4. Once you have found the source and removed its infection, you can then work on removing the infection from your hard drive and other disks, or system disk.

How to Get Rid of a Virus

To remove a virus you may:

• Delete all infected applications. This is the preferred method. The original disk “last modified date” is available for verification it was not modified by the infection. Apple’s Virus Rx identifies infected files. Any infected data files could be a new virus!

• Run a virus removal program such as N.O.M.A.D. for “nVIR”; SAM Virus Clinic, Disinfectant or Virex for all know viruses. This operation also updates the “last modified” date.

• Once the infected applications have been repaired or removed, the System and Finder will have to be deleted and rebuilt.

To rebuild your hard drive or system floppy and any application disks, you should:

1. Reboot the machine from a write protected system installation disk.

2. Remove the System and Finder files from your hard drive.

3. Reinstall the System which will also reinstall the Finder.

4. Reboot using the machine with the rebuilt system.

5. Run your Virus detection program again to insure you have a clean system.

6. Reinstall all deleted applications from locked master disks.

7. Run your Virus detection program again.

8. Backup your clean system and application disk.

9. Remain vigilant against reinfection! Install a virus intercept program!

How to Protect your Macintosh from a Virus

Listed below are some basic rules for “safe computing” practices:

• Run Virus Rx on your hard drive or system floppy, on a regular basis and when ever other people have used your system.

• Run Virus Rx or equivalent program on all floppy disk before using any applications from those disk.

• Write protect all floppy disk that contain original programs. This protects the disk from infection, but not your system.

• Backup your hard drive or system floppy and application disks on a regular basis. The best time to backup your files is after you have run Virus Rx and gotten a clean bill of health.

• Install Vaccine or another Virus intercept application. These INITs will detect and prevent a virus from attaching itself to your programs. If you do software development, Vaccine and other intercept programs can be annoying.

• Use Virex or another repair program to detect and repair infected files (suggest you replace infected applications from a master disk). Virex is $99.95 but comes highly recommended. Other programs are available which range from $15 to $65. Don’t forget to look at the upgrade costs before you select a program for your own use.

• On file servers, put applications in folders in which Make Changes is enabled for only the system administrator. Allow only the system manager to install new applications.

Remember: A locked disk is like a condom. Vaccine is like AZT. Neither one is a cure, only by knowing and testing your applications can you be safe.

Additional References About Computer Virus

Stefanac, Suzanne; Mad Macs, MacWorld, November 1988, pages 93 to 101. This article introduces the three main families of Macintosh virus. It covers the SCORES, nVIR and “peace virus”.

Communications of the ACM, June 1989, Volume 32, number 6. This issue has a special section of five articles on the Internet Worm.

Scanlin, Mike; A Vaccine for the ‘nVIR’ Virus, MacTutor, Volume 4, Number 5 May 1989, pages 46 to 51. This article describes how to remove the ‘nVIR’ both manually and also by using a C program included in the article. This article is recommended for Mac programmers.

Lundell, Allan; VIRUS!, Contemporary Books, 1989. This book covers the history, science, science-fiction, lore, mind set, and culture that has grown up about computer virus. This book captures some of the “Silicon Valley” culture about computers and software. The book is both fascinating and frightening.

Apple Computer, Technical Introduction to the Macintosh Family, Addison Wesley, 1987. This is an excellent, light technical introduction to the Macintosh. This book is excellent for anyone who wants more information than is in the user manuals but not so much as may be needed to program the Mac. This book covers the MacPlus, SE and Mac II (information on the SE 30, IIcx and IIx has not been published in book form yet).

II.h. • Glossary of Terms

by Vernon McMillan

This glossary is ordered, as you might expect, in alphabetical order, numbers first. Each entry is shown in boldface, with cross-references in italics. Some extremely obvious terms have not been defined, e.g., “Macintosh,” and “printer.” If you can think of terms that should be included in this glossary but are not, please provide them to us. Similarly, if you have a better or more clear definition for any of the terms, please provide it for incorporation in future updates.

All definitions in this glossary have been copied from the references listed at the end of the Glossary.

6551: A version of Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter (ACIA) used in the Apple Super Serial Card and other popular serial cards. The 6551 has largely supplanted the 6850 ACIA. (Ref. 13)

6850: A version of ACIA used on early serial cards. Most serial cards made in the last few years use the 6551 ACIA. (Ref. 13)

68000: The microprocessor used in the Macintosh family of computers. (Ref. 13)

68020: The microprocessor used in the Macintosh II computer and in the LaserWriter printer. (Ref. 13)

68881: A special-purpose chip that performs calculations using floating-point numbers at speeds greater than those calculations can be carried out using a more conventional microprocessor. The 68881 belongs to a type of chip usually called “math co-processors.” (Ref. 13)

abnormal behavior: Any unusual or unexpected Macintosh behavior, such as the cursor freezing or icons not staying in the Trash, that lets you know that there is a problem. (Ref. 6)

accessory card: A hardware board (card), on which electronic circuitry has been printed, that adds features to a computer. See also expansion card and expansion slot. (Ref. 7)

access time: The measurement of how quickly the read/write heads of a hard disk can retrieve data from storage. (Ref. 9)

ACIA: An acronym for Asynchronous Communication Interface Adapter. An integrated circuit that converts data from parallel to serial form and vice versa. See 6551 and 6850. (Ref. 13)

ACK: A control character (^ F) issued by the computer’s transfer protocol subroutine to acknowledge that a block of data has been properly received. (Ref. 29)

acoustic coupler, acoustic modem: A modem with cups that fit snugly around the earpiece and mouthpiece of a standard telephone handset and contains a small speaker and microphone to convert a computer’s digital signals into sound and back again. Acoustic couplers are not common today; most modems use standard modular connectors to connect with jacks in the wall, as regular telephones do. See also direct-connect modem. (Refs. 7 and 13)

acronym: A term formed by generally combining the first letter of every word in a popular expression. “What you see, is what you get” becomes WYSIWYG. (Ref. 10)

active text: The paragraph that contains the insertion point or the current selection. (Ref. 28)

active window: The frontmost window on the desktop; the window where the next action can take place. Its title bar is highlighted and its scrolling and sizing controls are visible. (Ref. 28)

ADB: An acronym for Apple Desktop Bus. A simple local area network circuit designed to handle a keyboard, mouse, and other low-speed input devices. (Ref. 7)

address: The number that identifies a device on the SCSI bus or a location in the computer’s memory. (Ref. 9) A specific location in memory. (Ref. 12) Addresses can be expressed as decimal (base 10) integers (such as 255) or as hexadecimal (base 16) numbers; the equivalent of 255 (in decimal notation) is $FF (in hexadecimal notation). (Ref. 13)

alarm Clock: A desk accessory that displays the current date and time, and lets you set an alarm. (Ref. 1)

alert box: A box that contains a warning that you’re asking the Macintosh to do something it can’t do, or that you’re about to destroy some information. The warning is accompanied by a beep; usually you must respond before you can proceed. (Refs. 1 and 7)

algorithm: A step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or computing a result; specifically, the computer program code that does this. (Ref. 7) In FM sound synthesis, one particular combination of a synthesizer’s operators used to create a patch. (Ref. 24)

allocate: To reserve memory space for a particular purpose, usually from the heap. (Ref. 12)

alphanumeric: The set of characters that are either Arabic numerals (0-9), letters of the alphabet (a-z and A-Z) or international characters (such as å, ñ, é, or ç). (Ref. 29)

alpha testing: Early debugging of a product within the company developing it. It’s followed by beta testing. (Ref. 22)

American Standard Code for Information Interchange: See ASCII.

analog signal: A signal that carries information represented by continuously varying quantities of voltage, frequency, or amplitude. Compare with digital signal. (Ref. 29)

analog-to-digital converter: An electronic circuit that changes continuous analog signals into discrete digital signals (bits); abbreviated A/D. (Ref. 7)

anomaly: An event or activity that is not consistent with normal Macintosh practices. (Ref. 14)

ANSI: An acronym for American National Standards Institute. The U.S. branch of the International Standards Organization. ANSI is responsible for establishing various standards for the U.S. computer industry, such as data transmission protocols, programming languages, computer terminal definitions and magnetic storage media standards. (Ref. 29)

Apple DeskTop Bus: See ADB.

apple key: See Command key.

apple Menu: The menu on the far left side of the menu bar, under the Apple symbol. Items available from this menu may include information about the current application, a list of other applications running under MultiFinder and the desk accessories installed in the system. (Ref. 29)

Applesoft BASIC: An extended version of the BASIC programming language used with the Apple II family of computers. (Ref. 4)

AppleShare: A dedicated file server. (Ref. 14)

AppleTalk: A local area network (LAN) developed by Apple Computer that can handle up to 32 nodes on a cable up to 1000 feet long. It allows them to exchange information and share hardware such as printers and hard disks. See LocalTalk. (Refs. 6 and 7) AppleTalk is used primarily to connect computers to Apple’s LaserWriter printer. (Ref. 13)

application or application program: A program written for some specific purpose, such as writing (word processing), financial calculations (spreadsheet work), illustrations (graphics), lists (data base management), and telecommunications. Applications are launched by double-clicking on an icon. (Refs. 2, 4, 7 and 9)

architecture: The structure or actual physical organization of a computer circuit. The circuit’s architecture determines its behavior. (Ref. 13)

archival data: Information that the user has preserved, but does not need to have readily available. (Ref. 9)

archive: A standby copy of the contents of a mass storage volume, usually comprising a collection of floppy disks. (Ref. 9)

arrow: The pointer used to choose commands from menus, manipulate window and ruler controls, resize and horizontally reposition pictures, and select paragraphs, pictures, rulers, page breaks, ranges, or any combination of these. (Ref. 28)

arrow keys: A set of (usually) four keys found on many computer keyboards that move the cursor (insertion point) left, right, up, or down on the screen; also called cursor keys or direction keys. (Ref. 7)

ascender: The part of a lowercase letter, such as in a “b” or “h,” that rises above the x-height. (Ref. 18)

ASCII: An acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (pronounced “ask’ee”). A code for representing text characters and other data inside a computer and between a computer and any peripheral device; each character is represented by seven bits. (Refs. 4 and 7) The characters are assigned a numerical representation from 0 to 127. In ASCII, the letter “A” is represented by the number 65. The letter “a” is 97. A space is 32. A Return character is 13. On some computers, such as the Macintosh, values greater than 127 have a special meaning. On the Mac, the Letter “Ä” is 128. Most computer reference manuals have tables showing the ASCII character set. (Ref. 13)

assembler: A low-level programming language that is closely related to the intrinsic operation of a computer. Programs in assembler are fast and flexible but hard to read and write. (Ref. 7) A program that converts assembly-language programs into machine language. (Ref. 12)

assembly language: A low-level (programming) language (in contrast to high-level languages like Pascal and BASIC that are easier for humans to understand) in which individual machine language instructions are written in a symbolic form that is easier to understand than machine language itself. Each assembly language instruction produces one machine language instruction. The program that translates assembly language into machine language is called an assembler. (Ref. 13)

asynchronous: A mode of data transmission in which characters are sent at varying time intervals. Each character is preceded by a start bit and followed by a stop bit. Asynchronous communication eliminates the need for computers to have a common synchronized clock to coordinate communication. Compare with synchronous. (Ref. 29)

asynchronous communication: A means of transmitting data between computers in which a special signal indicates when each transmitted character starts and stops. See also synchronous communication. (Ref. 7)

attribute bits: The attribute bits modify the way a file is handled. They are properties that the Macintosh associates with a given file. From a file recovery standpoint, the important file attributes are: locked, invisible, bundle, system, and protected. (Ref. 6)

audio output port: In the Macintosh, the electrical connection that transmits sound output; connected internally to a built-in speaker and externally to a 1/8-inch audio jack. (Ref. 7)

backup: (v) To make a spare copy of a disk or of a file. (Ref. 2)

backup: (n) A copy of your data on a different disk. Provides protection if the original file should become lost or damaged. Backups may use floppy disks, hard disks, or other mass storage devices. (Refs. 6 and 9)

backspace key: A key that moves the insertion point backward, removing the previously typed character, or that removes the current selection. (Ref. 1)

background program: A program operates “in the background” if it continues to function, automatically, while you use another program. (Ref. 5)

bad sector: A sector that contains a bit that has “flipped.” This renders the sector unreadable, hence all data in it is inaccessible. (Ref. 6)

baseline: An invisible line on which characters sit. In some typefaces, rounded characters such as “e” and “o” dip slightly below the baseline to visually line up with the other characters. (Ref. 21)

BASIC: An acronym for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. The most common programming language for microcomputers. It is relatively easy to learn but not especially flexible. (Ref. 7)

baud: A measure of the speed with which data is transmitted over a serial connection. (Literally, baud is the number of discrete signal state changes per second.) Baud is sometimes functionally equivalent to bits per second (bps), and oftentimes baud is used when bits per second is meant. (Ref. 13) At low speeds (300 baud or less), one baud represents one bps (bit per second); at higher speeds, one baud represents two or more bits. (Refs. 4 and 7)

BBS: An acronym for [computer] Bulletin Board Service. A computer program that allows users with a modem and a password to call the computer system running the program and store or retrieve messages or computer programs. (Ref. 13) Also called Bulletin Board System.

BCD: An acronym for Binary-Coded Decimal. A method of floating-point arithmetic that prevents the normal round-off error inherent in computer-based arithmetic. (Ref. 12)

Bell 212: A standard U.S. protocol for exchanging information at 1200 baud. (Ref. 29)

benchmark: A point of reference used to measure the performance of hardware and/or software. (Ref. 11)

beta testing: Debugging of a product using people outside the company developing the product. Beta testing comes after alpha testing and before the release version is shipped. (Ref. 22)

Bezier curve: A type of cubic spline curve that is easily and smoothly joined with other curves and straight lines. (Ref. 20) Mathematically generated lines that can display nonuniform curvatures (as opposed to curves with uniform curvature, which are called arcs). Named after Pierre Bezier (pronounced Bez-yay), they’re defined by four “control points.” It’s relatively easy to make Bezier curves assume complex shapes and to join their endpoints smoothly, which makes them particularly useful for creating letter shapes and other computer graphics. (Ref. 22)

binary: The representation of numbers and other characters in the base-2 system, using only the two digits 0 and 1. (Ref. 5)

Binary-Coded Decimal: See BCD.

binary file: A file in which the data are stored in machine-readable (as opposed to human-readable) form. Binary files either require another computer program to read and interpret them, or else they are themselves computer programs that are meant to be run and understood by the computer. In contrast to binary files, text files are easy for people to understand. (Ref. 13)

bit: A contraction of binary digit. The smallest unit of data. A bit is coded either a one or a zero, an electronic on or off. It is combined with others to represent numbers, characters, or instructions. (Refs. 4, 7 and 9)

bitmap: A grid of bits that makes up your Macintosh screen. (Ref. 11) Type of artwork created with Paint programs (MacPaint, SuperPaint, and so on). (Ref. 17) Bit-mapped characters are used as screen fonts and tend to be jagged, as opposed to smooth outline characters that are used as printer fonts. (Ref. 18)

bitmap font: A font made up of dots and designed primarily for use on dot-matrix printers. Also called an ImageWriter font. Compare with outline font and screen font. (Ref. 22) The representation of a PostScript font which you see on screen, also known as screen font. Bitmap fonts tend to have a jagged appearance. (Ref. 20)

bitmapped image: A screen or printed computer image consisting of dots, in which one dot in the image corresponds to one or more bits in the section of random-access memory set aside as a “map” of the screen. (Ref. 7)

blank paragraph: A paragraph that contains no text, usually created by pressing Return twice. Blank paragraphs can take up valuable disk and memory space and can confuse numbering schemes, so use Shift-Return to create blank lines instead of Return wherever possible. (Ref. 28)

block: A file storage unit (consists of one or more sectors). (Ref. 6) A group of words or characters that may be transported as a unit across a network or communications line. See also packet. (Ref. 29)

bold: A characteristic of a typeface that indicates a wider, darker representation. (Ref. 18)

bomb box: The dialog box displayed when a software problem has caused the operating system to lose control of the Macintosh. Distinguished by the round bomb icon in the upper-left corner. (Ref. 9)

Boolean: A data type that can have a value of True or False. (Ref. 12)

Boolean operator: An operator such as AND or NOT that combines logical expression into “logical” results, i.e., TRUE or FALSE. (George Boole was a mathematician and logician.) (Ref. 13)

boot: A computer’s start-up process, the instructions for which are stored in ROM. The term comes from “pulling yourself up by your own bootstraps.” (Ref. 7) Also called a “cold boot.” (A warm boot refers to loading the system on an already-switched-on computer.) (Ref. 9)

boot blocks: The first two sectors of every Macintosh disk. Contains information for starting the Macintosh. Damage to the boot blocks causes the “Sad Mac” icon to appear on startup. (Ref. 6)

boot disk: A disk containing all the information necessary to start a computer. See also startup disk. (Ref. 7)

bps: An acronym for bits per second. A measure of data transfer speed. See also baud. (Ref. 7) In serial connections, each eight-bit character is preceded by a start bit and followed, usually, by one stop bit, so that it takes ten bits to send one character. Thus, the speed of a connection in bits per second is usually ten times the transmission rate in characters per second: 300 bps is 30 characters a second, 1200 bps is 120 characters a second, and so on. (Ref. 13)

bridge: A device that lets you connect AppleTalk networks together. See zone. (Ref. 1) In a computer network, the hardware and software connecting two or more similar networks; all users on all connected networks have access to one another. See also gateway. (Ref. 7)

brownout: A period of low-voltage electrical power, usually caused by heavy demand or problems at the electrical utility. (Ref. 7)

buffer: An area of RAM memory used as interim storage for data being transferred from the computer to a peripheral. Since the Macintosh can export data faster than most printers and other devices can import it, holding data in a buffer allows the CPU to return to other tasks. (Ref. 9)

bug: A software problem; named after a moth that caused the failure of an early (1945) digital computer at Harvard. Evocative but inaccurate entomology: Moths (and butterflies) belong to the order Lepidoptera, whereas true bugs belong to the order Hemiptera. (Ref. 7)

Bulletin Board System: See BBS.

bundle (attribute bit): Set for all applications to indicate that they have icons and files to which particular attention must be paid. See attribute bits. (Ref. 6)

burn in: Occurs when the face of a CRT picks up a permanent image that looks like a (photographic) negative of the normal display. Even when the computer is off, you can still see the image. (Ref. 10)

bus: A communication pathway. The Mac communicates with other SCSI devices by way of the SCSI bus; the mouse and keyboard by way of the Apple Desktop bus. (Ref. 9) The number of bits that a bus can move in a single operation is one indication of the power of a computer. The Macintosh’s bus moves 16 bits at a time. The Macintosh II’s bus moves data 32 bits at a time. (Ref. 13)

buttons: The pushbutton-like images in dialog boxes where you click to designate, confirm, or cancel an action. See also mouse button. (Ref. 2)

byte: A unit of information, often amounting to a single text character. A byte consists of eight bits. (Ref. 4)

bache: A buffer storage that is constantly updated with recently accessed main-storage items. (Ref. 12)

CAD: An acronym for Computer-Assisted Design. The design of objects or systems with the assistance of a computer. Compare with CAM. (Ref. 13)

CAI: An acronym for Computer-Assisted Instruction. A teaching method that facilitates self-paced learning. (Ref. 13)

calculator: A desk accessory that works like a four-function pocket calculator. You can cut and paste calculation results into your documents. (Ref. 1)

CAM: Acronym for Computer-Assisted Manufacturing. Compare with CAD. (Ref. 13)

cancel button: A button that appears in dialog boxes. Clicking this button cancels the command. (Ref. 1)

cap height: The height of a face’s capital letters. In many faces, the capitals are shorter than the ascenders. (Ref. 21)

caps lock key: A key that, when engaged, causes subsequently typed letters to appear in uppercase, except that it doesn’t affect numbers or symbols. (Ref. 1)

card: A removable printed-circuit board that plugs into one of the expansion slots found on the computer’s main circuit board. Cards can provide additional memory, the ability to display 80 columns of text per line, the ability to communicate with printers and modems, or other purposes. (Ref. 13)

caret (^): The ^ symbol. Often used in combination with a letter to denote a control character. For example, ^ M represents a carriage return. See also control character. (Ref. 29)

carriage return: A control character (^ M) that instructs the computer to move the cursor to the beginning of the line. On the Macintosh, a carriage return is sent by pressing the key marked Return. Often, a carriage return must be sent to the host computer before the host will process the contents of the line just typed. (Ref. 29) An ASCII character (decimal 13) that ordinarily causes a printer or display device to print the character following it at the left margin. (Ref. 4) See Return.

carrier: The analog signal used by modems to transmit data. When calling another modem, if the signal is missing, full of noise or somehow distorted, most modems will report “NO CARRIER” and hang up. If the carrier signal is free of trouble, most modems will report “CONNECT” and then allow data to be sent. (Ref. 29)

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection: See CSMA/CD.

cascading: In automatically establishing an XMODEM, YMODEM or YMODEM-G transfer, “cascading” refers to dropping down to less and less sophisticated protocols until a match is found with the remote computer. (Ref. 29)

catalog: Also sometimes called directory, this is a command that lists the files on a disk. It can also refer to the listing of files itself. (Ref. 13)

catalog tree: Part of the diskkeeping information. Exists only on HFS disks. It keeps track of the files and folders on the disk in a hierarchical fashion; makes it much faster to access a file and makes working with a large number of files possible without slowing down operations. (Ref. 6)

cathode-ray tube: See CRT.

CCITT: An acronym for Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie. International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee; an international body, part of the International Telecommunications Union of the United Nations, which sets standards for international telecommunications via computers or telecopiers (also called facsimile or fax machines). (Refs. 7 and 13)

CD: An acronym for Compact Disk. A storage technology, employing an optical rather than a magnetic media platter, on which data is created and accessed by a laser. CD drives for the Macintosh can store considerably more data than most hard disks. CD-ROM, WORM, and erasable optical disks are examples. (Ref. 9)

CDev: An acronym for control panel device. Auxiliary files used by the Control Panel desk accessory. (Ref. 6) Some CDevs are supplied with Apple’s System software and others are offered by third parties. (Ref. 8)

CD-ROM: An acronym for Compact Disk Read-Only Memory. An optical device or medium capable of storing large amounts of permanent, unalterable data. (Ref. 9)

central processing unit: See CPU.

character: A letter of the alphabet, numeral, punctuation mark or symbol. (Ref. 29)

character keys: The following keys on the Macintosh keyboard — letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation, Return, Tab, and the Space bar. (Ref. 1)

character pitch: The number of characters per inch printed on a horizontal line. (Ref. 4)

character set: The entire set of characters that a printer can print. (Ref. 4)

character width: A term used by Apple in its communication programs to refer to the number of bits, generally seven or eight, in a transmitted character; usually referred to as the number of data bits. (Ref. 7)

check box: The small box or circle associated with an option in a dialog box that, when clicked, adds or removes the option. (Ref. 1)

checksum: A simple mathematical method of checking to determine if an error has been introduced during transmission of a file. Also, the data that is the result of such a check. See also CRC. (Ref. 29)

chip: A tiny wafer of silicon with a complex integrated electronic circuit photoengraved on its surface. (Ref. 7)

choose: To pick a command by dragging through a menu. You often choose a command after you’ve selected something for the program to act on. See also select. (Ref. 5)

chooser: A desk accessory that allows you to configure your Macintosh system to print on any printer for which there’s a printing resource on the current startup disk. You also use Chooser to designate the port to which a printer is attached. If you’re part of an AppleTalk network, you use the Chooser to connect and disconnect from the network and choose among devices connected to the network. You can also specify a user name that the Macintosh uses from time to time — when you’re printing on a LaserWriter, for example. (Refs. 1 and 2)

chooser device: See RDEV.

chooser resource: A controller, or driver, for an external device such as a printer, network modem, or file server. Chooser resources are installed in the System Folder, and then appear as options in the Chooser. (Ref. 8)

circuit board: A collection of integrated circuits (chips) wired together on a board. (Ref. 4)

clear: To remove something by selecting it and choosing Clear from the Edit menu or pressing Backspace. Unless you reclaim it immediately with an Undo command, anything you clear is lost. (Ref. 28)

click: To position the pointer on something, then press and quickly release the mouse button. (Ref. 1)

client: A computer connected to a network that can access information from other computers or from file servers. (Ref. 9)

clipboard: The holding place for what you last cut or copied. (Ref. 1) A region of random-access memory (RAM) that stores information copied or cut from a document you are working on with a Macintosh application. Clipboard information can be pasted into the same document, a different document created with the same application program, or a document created with a different program. Compare with Scrapbook. (Ref. 7)

clock battery: On the 128K to the Mac Plus, a 4.5-volt alkaline battery located in a small compartment just above the power switch. On the Mac SE, a 3.0-volt lithium battery soldered to the logic board. Clock batteries maintain the correct time and date and provide power to an area of memory where the volume setting and other Control Panel information is stored. (Ref. 10)

close: To turn a window back into the icon that represents it. (Ref. 1)

close box: The box on the left side of the title bar of the active window. Clicking the close box closes the window, and, if the window was the first opened on a document, closes the document as well. (Ref. 28)

comma-delimited file: A data file in which commas separate data elements. (Ref. 7)

command: A word or phrase, usually in a menu, describing an action for the Macintosh to perform. (Ref. 1)

command key: A key that, when held down while another key is pressed or a mouse action is performed, causes a command to take effect. Also referred to as the Apple key. (Ref. 1)

command-line interface: An old-fashioned way to get information into and out of a computer by means of cryptic commands displayed one line at a time on the screen. (Ref. 7)

communications protocol: A format or set of rules for sending and receiving data. (Ref. 4)

communications settings: A collection of settings that specifies the parameters linking the local computer with the host computer. (Ref. 29)

compact disk: See CD.

compact disk read-only memory: See CD-ROM.

compiler: A program that translates a high-level programming language (source code) into machine code that the computer understands; an entire program is generally compiled as a unit. See also interpreter. (Ref. 7)

concatenate: The operation of joining two strings together. For example, if you had one string with the value “Huntsville” and another with the value “Macintosh Users Group” and concatenated them, the result would be “Huntsville Macintosh Users Group.” (Ref. 13)

configuration: The hardware and software elements that constitute a computer system. (Ref. 4)

configuring: The act of changing software or hardware actions by changing settings. For example, you give software the necessary settings for communicating with a printer. You can configure hardware (a printer or interface card) by resetting physical elements like DIP switches or jumper blocks. Configurations can also be set or reset in software. (Ref. 4)

connectivity: The ability to link with another computer using compatible software, standard data exchange, and other things that ensure the best connection between the computers. (Ref. 14)

constant: A symbol in a computer program that represents a fixed, unchanging value. For example, “3” is a constant. Compare with variable. (Ref. 13)

construction set: A type of program that permits the user to create a new or special-purpose application by combining pre-existing elements, rather than by programming each activity “from scratch.” (Ref. 13)

context switching: A type of processing in which several programs are loaded into memory simultaneously, but only one, the foreground program, is active at a time; background programs are frozen but can be brought into the foreground instantly. See also multi-tasking. (Ref. 7)

contiguous RAM: RAM that’s not split apart by other pieces of RAM used by other programs. Compare with fragmented memory. (Ref. 22)

control character: On ProDOS and MS-DOS computers, a nonprinting character that controls or modifies the way information is printed or displayed. Control characters are typed by holding down the Control key while pressing some other key. In the Macintosh family, the Command key performs a similar function. (Ref. 5)

control key: A key used in conjunction with other keys to enter (or, in telecommunications, send) control characters. (Ref. 13)

controller: The circuitry that manages a hard disk’s physical data access operations, such as moving read/write heads and erasing tracks and sectors. The term is sometimes used to mean the software that runs this circuitry (more correctly called the driver). (Ref. 9)

control panel: A desk accessory that you use to personalize your computer to your own way of doing things. Use the Control Panel to change the speaker volume, set the system clock, create a RAM cache, and set other preferences. (Ref. 1)

control panel device: See CDev.

Control Program for Microprocessors: See CP/M.

copy: To move selected text or graphics to the Clipboard so that it can be copied to a different location. (Ref. 29)

copy protect: To make a disk uncopyable. Software publishers frequently try to copy protect their disks to prevent them from being illegally duplicated by software pirates. (Ref. 1)

copy-protected disk: A disk that cannot be copied, usually because it is in a nonstandard format. (Ref. 7)

copy protection: Hardware and software methods of limiting data duplication to discourage illegal use and piracy of software. Some copy-protected software can be copied only a few times, some not at all; others require a password or special floppy disk to work. (Ref. 9)

CP/M: An acronym for Control Program for Microprocessors. CP/M is the ancestor of MS-DOS, the operating system used on IBM PCs and compatibles. Although recognized by many as clumsy and difficult to learn (some maintained that the initials stood for “Conspiracy to Protect the Ministry [of computer initiates]”), at one time CP/M was the most widely used microcomputer operating system — which says something about the way computers have improved over the years. (Ref. 13)

CPU: An acronym for Central Processing Unit. A computer’s main information-processing circuit. In a microcomputer, the CPU is a single silicon chip called the microprocessor or CPU chip; on larger computers, the CPU may consist of many chips. (Ref. 7)

crash: To stop working suddenly, possibly destroying information in the process. A “crashed” disk may be recovered partially using certain specialized programs written for the purpose. See also head crash. (Ref. 13) When a system stops working (or is working incorrectly), forcing you to restart your system without an error message. (Ref. 15)

CRC: An acronym for Cyclic Redundancy Check. The last part of every sector. Provides a check on the accuracy of data within the sector. It is the means by which bit flips are detected. (Ref. 6) A method of checking for transmission errors during protocol file transfers. CRC is a more reliable method of error checking than checksum. (Ref. 29)

creator: A four-character identifier associated with each file on the Macintosh that tells the Finder what application created it. For example, files created by MacWrite have a creator “MACA.” Compare with type. (Ref. 13)

creator code (or ID): The four letter identification shared by a program and all the documents that it creates. In most cases, a document must have the creator code of its parent application for that application to be able to recognize it and thus open, work with, and/or print it. MacWrite’s creator code is MACA and HyperCard’s is WILD. (Refs. 6 and 9)

CRT: An acronym for Cathode-Ray Tube. The screen used in nearly all television and most computers, in which light is produced by an electron beam (the cathode ray) striking a phosphor coating on the screen. (Ref. 7)

CSMA/CD: An acronym for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. A network protocol that permits any node to send information when the network cable is free; if two nodes start at the same time, each node pauses for a random interval before trying again. (Ref. 7)

current startup disk: The disk that contains the system files the computer is currently using. The startup disk icon is usually in the upper-right corner of the desktop. (Ref. 2)

cursor: The symbol used to indicate position on the screen, usually manipulated with the mouse or keyboard. On the Mac, the cursor is a pointer arrow when items can be selected by pointing and clicking; an I-beam when text can be inserted; a flashing marker indicating the current working location on a computer screen; or a wait cursor when the computer is busy carrying out a command and can’t acknowledge any new ones. (Ref. 9)

cursor keys: See arrow keys.

cut: To remove something by selecting it and choosing Cut from the Edit menu. What you cut is placed on the Clipboard. (Ref. 1)

Cyclic Redundancy Check: See CRC.

cylinder: On a disk, the aggregate of all the disk tracks that can be written or read for a specific head position. On a double-sided floppy disk, a cylinder consists of two tracks; on a hard disk, it consists of four or more tracks. (Ref. 7)

daisy chain: A configuration used by SCSI to connect multiple peripherals to a single Macintosh. Units are linked in a row, and each serves as an input/output relay for the others. (Ref. 9)

daisy wheel: The printing element in one type of letter-quality printer, which resembles a daisy with embossed letters at the tips of plastic “petals.” (Ref. 7)

DAs: An acronym for Desk Accessories. “Mini-applications” that are available from the Apple menu regardless of which application you’re using. Examples are the Calculator, Alarm Clock, and Scrapbook. DAs are installed and removed with Font/DA Mover. (Ref. 1, 5 and 9)

data: The output of a program. Synonymous terms are: document, file, and data file. The most universal usage is that the output from a program is called its data and the Macintosh refers to the file it is stored in as a document. (Ref. 6)

database: A structured collection of information, such as an address book, organized for storage, retrieval, and updating. (Ref. 7)

data bits: In computer communication, the bits that code for a transmitted character, usually a sequence of seven or eight bits; same as Apple’s term character width. (Ref. 7)

data byte: The basic unit of data the computer sends to the printer. (Ref. 4)

data byte length: The number of bits in a data byte. The ImageWriter II receives data in 8-bit data bytes. (Ref. 4)

data disk: A disk that contains only data, without programs or start-up information. (Ref. 7)

data encryption: A data protection method that makes use of codes. Data-encrypted files cannot be read except by users who know the code. (Ref. 9)

data fork: Part of all files. For most documents it is the part of the file that contains the text information. When a document is badly damaged, it may be possible to extract the text that is stored in the data fork, thereby recovering the data even if the document itself cannot be recovered. (Ref. 6) Part of the file that contains the data accessed through the Macintosh’s File Manager. (Ref. 14)

data storage area: The 512-byte area of a sector in which the actual file information is stored. Only one file at a time can be stored in a sector. (Ref. 6)

Data Terminal Ready: See DTR.

DB-9: The popular name for a small connector that connects computers to peripheral devices. The DB-9 connector is a small trapezoid with space for nine pins in the male version of the connector. (Ref. 13)

DB-25: A trapezoidal connector with up to 25 pins used to connect computers with peripheral devices. Most modems and many non-Apple serial printers use DB-25 connectors. The DB-25 is a commonly used connector because it provides enough wires to implement the popular RS-232 protocol that makes it possible for computer devices to “speak” to each other. (Ref. 13)

DCA: An acronym for Document Content Architecture. IBM’s format for transmitting text documents from one computer system to another; comes in two forms: RFTDCA (revisable) and FFTDCA (final form). (Ref. 7)

DCE: An acronym for Data Communication Equipment. A device on one side of an RS-232C serial communication link; the other side is DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). DCE and DTE differ in the direction that signals travel through their connector pins; A DCE device can usually be converted to a DTE device with a change in connecting cables. The distinction is not made in the RS-422 ports on the Macintosh, which are wired identically. (Ref. 7)

dead key: A keystroke or keystroke combination that modifies the subsequent character rather than producing a character of its own. Option-U, for instance, will place an umlaut (¨) over the following letter. (Ref. 9)

debugger: A special program that provides capabilities to start and stop execution of a program at will, as well as analyze values that the program is manipulating. (Ref. 12)

default: A value, action, or setting that a computer system assumes, unless the user gives an explicit instruction to the contrary. (Ref. 4)

defective media: Disks that do not take/hold the pattern of magnetization that is written on them by the disk drive. (Ref. 6)

delete-log: A special file that is used to record information about files as they are deleted. (Ref. 6)

deleted file: A file that has been thrown in the Trash. Until new data is written into the sectors that had been used by a deleted file, it can be recovered (undeleted). (Ref. 6)

descender: The part of character that extends below the baseline, as in “g” or “p”. (Ref. 18)

desk accessories: See DAs.

desktop: Macintosh’s working environment — the menu bar and the gray area on the screen. The visual representation of disks, folders, and files on the Macintosh screen. This is the basis of the user interface for performing operations on disks and files. The terms Finder and desktop are sometimes used interchangeably. (Refs. 1 and 6)

desktop file: An invisible file that exists on every disk. It 1) maintains a record of folders on the disk, 2) stores comments for the Get Info Box of each file, and 3) keeps track of the icons used by files. (Ref. 6)

destination: (adj.) Describes the disk or folder that receives a copied or translated file, as in destination disk. (Ref. 5)

device: Any unit that can be controlled by the Macintosh to access, store, or display information. Hard disks and floppy drives are devices, and so is the internal speaker that emits warning beeps. External video displays (monitors) also perform as devices. (Ref. 9)

device partition: A special type of volume that is actually part of a larger volume and is created either by the device manufacturer or by a Macintosh user with the help of software provided by the manufacturer. Often referred to as hard partitions, SCSI partitions, and various other names. Not to be confused with volume partitions or soft partitions. (Ref. 15)

diacritic: An accent or mark placed on a letter to indicate a particular pronunciation. Common diacritical marks are the acute accent (é), grave accent (è), umlaut (ü), circumflex (î), tilde (ñ), and cedilla (ç). (Ref. 21)

dialog box: A box that contains a message requesting more information from you. Sometimes the message is a warning that you’re asking your Macintosh to do something it can’t do, or that you’re about to destroy some information. In these cases the message is often accompanied by a beep. See also alert box. (Ref. 1)

digital circuit: Electronic circuit that works with information coded in binary digits. (Ref. 7)

digital signal: A signal that can be fully represented by binary digits. Analog signals are usually converted to digital signals before being stored or processed by a computer. Compare with analog signal. (Ref. 29)

digital-to-analog converter: An electronic circuit that changes discrete digital signals (bits) into continuous analog signals; abbreviated D/A. (Ref. 7)

digitizer: A device that converts an image into a bit-mapped file that can be manipulated. (Ref. 9)

dimmed button: An inactive button with gray, rather than black, text. Clicking on a dimmed button has no effect. (Ref. 29)

dimmed command: A command that appears dimmed compared to other commands in the menu. You can’t choose a dimmed command. (Ref. 1)

dimmed icon: An icon that represents an ejected disk, or document, folder, or application on a disk that has been ejected. You can select and open dimmed disk or folder icons, but you can’t open the documents and applications on them. (Ref. 1)

dingbats: Ornamental typographic elements such as stars, arrows, pointing hands, and so on. Used for decorative touches, highlights, and borders. (Ref. 21)

DIN plug: A standard type of plug used at each end of MIDI cable. (Ref. 24)

DIP switch: DIP is an acronym for Dual In-line Package. A small block containing a number of switches. Setting these switches sets options on the device of which the switch is a part, like a printer, modem, or an interface card. (Ref. 4)

direct connect modem: A modem that bypasses the telephone handset and plugs directly into a telephone line. See also acoustic modem. (Ref. 7)

direction keys: See arrow keys.

directory: A list of the contents of a folder or a disk. The contents can be listed pictorially, alphabetically, chronologically, by size, by date, or by kind. (Refs. 1 and 2) A file stored on a disk that indexes the location of information on that disk. (Ref. 7) If the directory is unreadable for any reason, the disk may be unreadable even though the data on the disk are intact. Use a recovery program to try to recover such disks. (Ref. 13)

directory window: The window that shows you the contents of a disk or folder. (Ref. 1)

DirID: On an HFS volume, folders are directories. Each folder has a unique number associated with it that programs can use to remember where things are. These numbers are called DirIDs, which is short for Directory Identification numbers. (Ref. 25)

disassembler: A program that converts machine language programs into a higher level language, such as assembly language. (Ref. 13)

disk: A round, flat object used to store data. Disks are usually (but not always) coated with ferrous oxide that can be magnetized so as to preserve information. Disks can be floppy, i.e., made of flexible plastic, or hard, i.e., made of rigid metal. (Ref. 13) Often referred to generically as a volume. (Ref. 14)

disk buffer: A special portion of random-access memory that temporarily holds often-used information (for example, the directory) from a disk; speeds operations because the information does not have to be constantly exchanged with the disk. (Ref. 7)

disk controller: An electronic circuit that converts information on the microcomputer bus into a signal used by the disk drive heads to read and write on a disk. (Ref.7)

disk drive: An electromechanical device that holds the disk, retrieves information from it and saves information on it. A hard disk drive has the disk permanently encased. A 3.5-inch disk drive requires that you insert a 3.5-inch disk. (Ref. 1)

disk drive port: In the Macintosh, a parallel port designed for connection to an external microfloppy disk drive. See also parallel port. (Ref. 7)

diskette: A flat, circular piece of plastic coated with a thin film of a magnetic substance. (Ref. 6)

diskkeeping information: Organizational information stored on every disk. The integrity of this information affects the ability to work with the whole disk and all of the files on it. It consists of the desktop file, boot blocks, volume directory, and file directory. (Ref. 6)

Disk Operating System: See DOS.

disk server: A disk drive on a network that is available to any user. Disk-server software divides a single disk into several logical volumes, which behave as if they were individual disks, and controls access to them. (Ref. 7)

DISOSS: An acronym for DIStributed Office Support System. The standard information-exchange format developed by IBM for its office products and now used by other vendors; incorporates DCA. See also SNA. (Ref. 7)

display font: Also known as the screen font, it is used to accurately display and manipulate a specific type style on the screen. The printer font is the one used to display type on a PostScript printer. The display font is installed and removed with Font/DA Mover. (Ref. 9)

Distributed Office Support System: See DISOSS.

dithering: A technique that exploits the human eye’s ability to blend two different colors together, creating the illusion of a third color. (Ref. 20)

document: Whatever you create with Macintosh applications — information you enter, modify, view, or save. Every document stores information as text and/or formatting. (Refs. 1 and 6)

dominant disk: The disk whose desk accessories, fonts, Clipboard, Scrapbook, etc. are currently available to the Macintosh. (Ref. 6)

DOS: An acronym for Disk Operating System. A program that organizes, stores and retrieves information from a disk. MS-DOS is a disk operating system, as is the Macintosh Hierarchical File System (HFS). “DOS” rhymes with “Boss.” (Ref. 13)

dot matrix printer: A printer that forms characters with patterns of dots. Usually refers to an impact dot-matrix printer, like the ImageWriter II, in which the dots are pressed onto the paper by a pin pushing on an inked ribbon, but other printer types, including laser printers, also work in dot-matrix fashion. (Refs. 4 and 7) Dot matrix printers are generally faster than daisy wheel printers but the quality of the print of a dot matrix printer is not as good. (Ref. 13)

dots per inch: See dpi.

dots per square inch: See dpsi.

double-click: To position the pointer where you want an action to take place, and then press and release the mouse button twice in quick succession without moving the mouse. A technique used in selecting and opening. (Ref. 1)

download: To transfer a computer program from a host computer, usually a mainframe, to your computer, usually over telephone lines using a modem. Compare with upload. (Ref. 13) The process of copying a file (document or application) from an on-line service to your Macintosh. This is normally accomplished using a modem to transmit the file over the telephone lines. Typical on-line services include bulletin boards, CompuServe, America Online, and others. (Ref. 14)

downloadable fonts: Fonts for a PostScript printer that reside on the Mac and can be downloaded to a printer for temporary use. (Ref. 9)

dpi: An acronym for dots per inch. A linear measure most often applied to screen and printer resolution. 9-inch Macs display 72 dots-per-inch horizontally by 72 dots-per-inch vertically. (Refs. 7 and 10)

dpsi: An acronym for dots per square inch. An areal measure applied to screen and printer resolution. (Ref. 7)

drag: To position the pointer on something, press and hold the mouse button, move the mouse and release the mouse button. When you release the mouse button, you either confirm a selection or move an object to a new location. A technique used in choosing commands, selecting text, and moving icons. (Ref. 1)

DRAM (pronounced DEE-ram): An acronym for Dynamic RAM. A memory chip. Dynamic simply means that it loses its memory when you shut off the computer. (Ref. 22)

driver: A program that lets a peripheral device and a computer send and receive information. Printer drivers control printers; a hard disk driver controls exchanges between a hard disk and a computer. (Ref. 5)

driver resource: A file in a System Folder that tells the computer how to work with a device. (Ref. 1)

drop cap: A large capital letter, placed at the beginning of a chapter or paragraph, that drops into the surrounding text. (Ref. 21)

DTE: An acronym for Data Terminal Equipment. See DCE.

DTR: An acronym for Data Terminal Ready. One of the handshake lines in a data transmission interface. Also, a name for the default communications protocol for the ImageWriter II. Also known as hardware handshake. (Ref. 4)

dumb terminal: A device consisting of a screen and a keyboard for communicating with a computer, usually a mainframe. Dumb terminals are called “dumb” because all the processing and computing is done by the host computer, and the terminal only passes information back and forth. (Ref. 29)

duplex: In telecommunication, allowing two-way transmission. In full-duplex communication, such as conventional voice telephone calls, transmission occurs both ways simultaneously; in half-duplex, such as citizens-band radio, transmission can go only one way at a time. (Ref. 7)

Dvorak keyboard: A keyboard layout devised by August Dvorak that puts the most-often-used letters in English near the most powerful fingers. (Ref. 7)

Dynamic RAM: See DRAM.

dysfunction: Any or all of the conditions under which the Macintosh becomes entirely unusable. Bombs, crashes, freezes, and hangs are all dysfunctions. (Ref. 9)

EBCDIC: An acronym for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. A standard scheme for coding characters in which each character is represented by a sequence of eight bits; used primarily by large computers. See also ASCII. (Ref. 7)

echo: In computer communication, characters returned to the sender by the receiving computer. The echo mirrors the original transmission. (Ref. 7)

electronic mail: A form of computer communication in which the sender transmits a message to a central computer, which stores the message until the recipient can retrieve it electronically. (Ref. 7)

eligible: (adj.) In Apple File Exchange, a file is eligible if it can be translated with a selected translator or translators. (Ref. 5)

ellipsis: A character made up of three periods. Ellipses are used to indicate an omission; often used when portions of quoted matter are omitted. (Ref. 21) Ellipsis are created by pressing both the Option key and the “;” key.

em: The “em” is a measurement commonly used to adjust kerning. For example, kerning two letters closer by 0.1 em moves them closer by 1/10 of their point size, no matter what it is. (Ref. 19) A typographical term referring to the width of the character “M”, which is usually the widest character in a font. It is a relative measurement; i.e., and em is 10 points wide when the face is set at 10 points, 12 points in 12-point type, etc. Letter spacing, line spacing ,and pair kerning are measured in ems. (Ref. 20)

E-mail: Electronic mail; messages sent from computer to computer over phone lines. (Ref. 22)

emulation: The technique of getting one piece of hardware or software to mimic another. (Ref. 7)

Encapsulated PostScript format: See EPS format.

encryption: Converting information into an unintelligible form for security, most often with a password that acts as a key for later decryption. (Ref. 7)

end-of-line character: Any character that tells the printer that the preceding text constitutes a full line and may now be printed. (Ref. 4)

Enter key: A key that confirms or terminates an entry or sometimes a command. (Ref. 1)

EOF: An acronym for End Of File. A condition that occurs when the last piece of data from a file has been read. In some operating systems, EOF refers to the control character (^ Z) that marks the end of a file. (Ref. 29)

EPS: An acronym for Encapsulated PostScript. A format for graphic images that consists of structured PostScript code. Compare with MacPaint, PICT, and TIFF. (Ref. 22)

EPSF: An acronym for Encapsulated Post Script File(s).

EPS format: A graphic image format that combines two versions of an image, one in PostScript and one bit-mapped for the Mac screen. They can be printed in detail only on a PostScript printer. (Ref. 9)

erasable optical disk: A mass storage device that records and writes files to a photo-optical medium. (Ref. 9)

ergonomics: Considering the human element in engineering design. The standards are ill-defined; whether a device is “ergonomic” is usually decided by the advertising department. (Ref. 7)

error-checking: A technique used to verify the accuracy of data transmission. (Ref. 29)

error message: Any indication that there is a problem. Error messages can be written alerts that the Macintosh provides, abnormal behaviors, or system crashes. (Ref. 6)

Escape key: A special key on a computer keyboard which generates an “escape” code (ASCII 1B hex); needed by a Mac only when communicating with another type of computer. (Ref. 7)

escape sequence: A sequence of keystrokes or characters beginning with ESC, or the ASCII code for Escape. Such sequences issue commands to the printer that position the cursor and otherwise control text formatting in a printout. (Ref. 4)

evangelist: Someone who creates enthusiasm for particular products or services. (Ref. 13)

even parity: A method of parity error checking in which a parity bit is added to a group of bits to keep the total number of 1s in the group even. If the number of 1s in the group is odd, the parity bit is set to 1, so that the final total for the group is even. If the number of 1s in the group is already even, then the parity bit is set to 0, keeping the total number of 1s even. See also parity. (Ref. 29)

expansion card: A physical circuit card that plugs into a slot on the computer (Mac SE, Mac II, etc.) to add more functions. (Ref. 9)

expansion slot: A place inside the computer for connecting expansion cards. See also accessory card. (Ref. 7)

export: To write data out (usually to a disk file) in a form other programs can use. (Ref. 14)

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code: See EBCDIC.

extents tree: Part of the file directory of all HFS disks. It is an auxiliary structure to the catalog tree. It is needed only when an individual file becomes very large and fragmented. (Ref. 6)

external hard disk: A hard disk drive with its own enclosure and power supply, designed to be connected to a computer rather than installed inside one. (Ref. 9)

extracting text: The process of extracting all text data from a document. The extracted text will not contain the document’s formatting. It may contain “junk” characters (the print representation of the formatting) which must be cleaned out before the file is usable. This process is used for file recovery when no other technique will work. (Ref. 6)

facsimile (fax): A method for sending pictures over ordinary dial-up telephone lines. (Ref. 7)

family: A group of related typefaces, known as styles. Times Roman, Times Bold, Times Italic, and Times Bold Italic are all part of the Times family. See also Style. (Ref. 19)

FAT: An acronym for File Allocation Table. A table showing which files are located on which sectors of a hard disk. To read a file to the disk, the Mac must first consult the FAT. (Ref. 9)

FFTDCA: An acronym for Final Form Text Document Content Architecture. A computer text-file format that contains the final page image. See also DCA. (Ref. 7)

FID (File Number): Disks keep track of files by assigning each file a unique file number. This information is disk-specific, i.e., if the same file is copied to several disks it will have a different FID on each disk. FIDs can sometimes be an aid in re-identifying files which have lost their identities. (Ref. 6)

field: A unit of information, such as an item in a database; a collection of related fields constitutes a record. In an address database, the street address and the zip code are fields; the entire address is a record. See also record. (Ref. 7)

file: A collection of information stored on a disk. There are two major types of files: programs and data. (Refs. 1 and 6)

file allocation table: See FAT.

file creator code: A code (which is part of a file) that tells the Macintosh which application created the file. (Ref. 14) See also creator and creator code.

file compressing utility: A program that compresses files, making them both easier to store and less expensive to send over a modem. (Ref. 9)

file dialog box: The screen display used to open or save a document. Often it is modified for other purposes as well. The contents and configuration of the box vary depending on the application being used and the task being performed. (Ref. 9)

file directory: Part of the general diskkeeping information on every disk. Contains detailed information about each file on the disk. On HFS disks it has two components, the catalog tree and the extents tree. Damage to the file directory affects your ability to work with files. (Ref. 6)

file fragment: Incomplete files recovered from damaged disks. This type of file can never be used. The only option is to extract its text to recover what data remains. (Ref. 6)

filemark: Position in the file from which next file reading or writing operation begins. (Ref. 29)

filename: The name that identifies a file. The maximum character length of a Macintosh filename is 31 characters for a document or folder, 27 characters for a disk. A name can’t contain a colon (:), and it should not begin with a period (.). (Ref. 2)

file server: A file server allows multiple Macintoshes to access files on a shared hard disk via an AppleTalk (or equivalent) network. (Ref. 6) A node on a network that contains a disk drive, processor, and controlling software; available to any user. File-serving software controls access to individual files; multiuser software allows several users access to the same file simultaneously, although only one person at a time can make changes. (Ref. 7)

file system: The process of reading and writing files on your disks is handled by the Macintosh file system. The system keeps track of each file’s location, size, creation date, and so forth. When an application needs to read or write a file, it calls on the Macintosh file system to do most of the work. (Ref. 14)

file type: A four-character code that identifies the category to which a file belongs. For example, all Mac-compatible applications have the file type APPL. (Ref. 9) A special four-character code used by the Macintosh to distinguish one type of file from another. For example, when you create a document with MacPaint and store it on disk, the application automatically assigns it the type code PNTG. The MacPaint application program itself is assigned the type code APPL when it is created. (Ref. 14)

filter: A utility that helps an application read or write documents created by another application. (Ref. 28)

Final Form Text Document Content Architecture:  See FFTDCA.

Finder: An application that’s always available on the desktop. It maintains the desktop display of files and folders, updating the diskkeeping information when disks are reorganized (for example, files are moved, renamed, thrown away, etc.). (Refs. 1 and 6)

firmware: Programs embedded in a computer’s circuitry; cannot be changed as easily as programs on disk (software) but are not as fixed as the other electronic circuits (hardware). Read-only memory programs are often called firmware. (Ref. 7)

FKeys: Short utility programs that are started by pressing Command, Shift, and a number key from 1 through 0. (Ref. 7)

flawed data: The storing of incorrect data on the disk. There are two common types of flaws in data. The first is when the data is inaccurate, the second is when accurate data is assigned to the wrong place on the disk. (Ref. 6)

flipped bits: Adverse conditions such as magnetic fields, radiation, physical damage, etc. can affect the magnetic properties of a bit. When a “0” bit changes to a “1” or vice versa, we say that the bit has “flipped.” If a sector contains a flipped bit, all the data in the sector is considered unreliable and cannot be read. (Ref. 6)

floating-point number: A method of representing numbers inside the computer in which the decimal point (more correctly, the binary point) is permitted to “float” to different positions within the number. Some of the bits within the number itself are used to keep track of the point’s position. (Ref. 13)

floppy disk: A removable storage unit comprising a thin magnetic-medium platter in a protective enclosure. The Macintosh uses 3-1/2-inch floppies, which can be single- or double-sided. (Ref. 9)

floppy disk drive: The internal or external mechanism that reads and writes data to and from a floppy disk. (Ref. 9)

folder: A holder of documents, applications, or other folders on the desktop. Folders allow you to organize information in any way you want. (Ref. 1) Under HFS, a device that contains a group of files to set them apart from others in a disk’s directory. Folders can contain either files or other folders. Under MFS, a folder is a cosmetic device that temporarily hides files or other folders from view, but does not set them apart in a disk’s directory. (Ref. 8) Folders are actually subdirectories, i.e., directories within other directories. (Ref. 13)

font: In typography, a complete set of type in one size and style of character. In computer usage, a collection of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and other typographical symbols with a consistent appearance. (Refs. 1 and 2) In ordinary typography, roman type (like this) is a distinct font from italic type (like this), but in standard micro-computer typography, for example, Times roman and Times italic would be treated simply as variants of the same font. (Ref. 13)

Font/DA Mover: A utility program provided with the System software; it is used for installing and removing fonts and desk accessories to and from the System file. (Ref. 9)

Font menu: In many applications, a pull-down menu that allows you to select a specific font. (Ref. 18)

font size: A means of indicating how tall a font is, measured from the baseline of one line to the baseline of the next. (The baseline is the line on which characters “rest.”). Font size is usually measured in points, 1/72 of an inch, but on some computer systems, such as the Macintosh, a point is not a rigid unit of measure — for example, 9-point Geneva is actually one point taller than 9-point Monaco. Font size, which is vertical, is not the same as font pitch, which is horizontal. When you speak of 10-pitch type, you are talking about a font that has 10 characters to the inch. (Ref. 13)

font style: A special attribute given to the characters in a font. Examples: bold, italic, inverse. (Ref. 17)

footer: An identifying line or lines at the bottom of a page, analogous to a header, which is at the top of a page. Footers are distinct from footnotes, which are textual asides or references that do not form part of the principal text. (Ref. 13)

footprint: The amount of space a device takes up on the surface where it sits. (Ref. 22)

foreground program: The active program (and active window) when several programs are in memory at the same time. See also multi-tasking. (Ref. 7)

format: The arrangement of text within the text column, as determined by the margins, paragraph indent, tabs, line spacing, and text alignment. (Ref. 28)

formatting (in documents): The part of a document that directs such things as page layout, margins, tab locations, fonts, style, etc. It is stored along with the actual words (text) that were written. When a file is saved as Text-only or its text is extracted, the formatting is lost. (Ref. 6)

formatting (a disk): The process of magnetically marking out actual physical spaces on the disk. It is done by placing concentric rings of sectors on the disk. (Ref. 6)

formatting marks: Information that comes at the beginning of every sector. It tells the Macintosh what sector it is working with. It is set when the disk is initialized and never changes thereafter. (Ref. 6)

form feed: An ASCII character (decimal 12) that causes a printer or other paper-handling device to advance to the top of the next page. (Ref. 4)

FORTRAN: An acronym for FORmula TRANslation. One of the oldest high-level computer languages; used today mostly by scientists and engineers. (Ref. 13)

fragmentation: When new sectors are added to a file, its sectors may no longer be next to each other. Fragmented files are not damaged, but they are less efficient to work with because they require more time to be read from the disk. (Ref. 6)

fragmented memory: If you open and close lots of applications during a work session, your system’s memory gets fragmented — split up into little pieces. This can be a problem, because a segment initially set aside for one application may not be big enough for another. Compare with contiguous memory. (Ref. 22)

freeze: When everything on the screen, including the mouse cursor, cannot be altered. (Ref. 9)

full duplex: A mode of communication in which information is transferred in both directions simultaneously. Compare with half duplex. (Ref. 29)

function key: A keystroke combination that activates a small program incorporated in the system file. For example, Shift-Command-3 saves the current screen as a MacPaint file and Shift-Command-4 prints the screen on an ImageWriter. Not to be confused with the keys labeled F1 to F15 on the extended keyboard. (Ref. 9)

gateway: In a computer network, the hardware and software connecting two or more dissimilar networks. See also bridge. (Ref. 7)

generic icon: If a file does not have its own icon, it will be assigned a generic one. There are two generic icons, one for programs and one for documents. (Ref. 6)

Get Info window: The window that appears when you choose Get Info from the File menu (or press the Command-I keys). It tells you the size of the file, folder or disk, where it resides, and when it was created and last modified. There’s also a space for entering comments and, for a file or a disk, a box for locking and unlocking it. (Ref. 22)

gigabyte (GB): A unit for data technically totaling 1,073,741,824 bytes (1024 megabytes). Usually it is defined as either a million kilobytes, or a thousand megabytes. (Refs. 7 and 9)

glitch: A false or spurious electronic signal. (Ref. 29)

global backup: The process of backing up all the files on a hard disk. (Ref. 2)

graphics: Displayed or printed pictures or images, as opposed to text. (Ref. 4)

half duplex: A mode of communication in which information can be transmitted in only one direction at a time. Compare with full duplex. (Ref. 29)

handshake: In computer communication, an electrical signal used by the receiving device to stop transmission from the sending device until the transmitted data can be processed. (Ref. 7)

hang: When the Mac stalls and ignores commands from the mouse and keyboard. (Ref. 9) A state where the computer has (a) stopped executing instructions or commands or (b) is executing instructions in an endless loop and refuses to accept further instructions or commands. The way out is to reset the system, but the (not always achievable) object is to do so in such a way as not to damage anything or lose data. Consult your computer’s manual for how best to do this — and good luck! In point of fact, unless the computer was in the process of writing to the disk when it hung, you should be able to recover with the loss only of what you had done since you last saved your work. To minimize the effect of this, save you work often. (Ref. 13)

hanging indent: First-line indentation to the left of the subsequent lines of a paragraph; useful for bulleted or numbered items. (Ref. 16)

hard copy: Information printed on paper, rather than on disk or on the monitor. (Ref. 13)

hard disk: A disk composed of one or more rigid metal platters. It has much greater storage capacity and access speed than diskettes. (Ref. 6)

hard partition: See device partition.

hardware: The physical parts of the computer system. Any part of the Macintosh or any peripheral devices that you can touch. (Ref. 1)

hardware configuration: The specific type of Macintosh and the types of any additional attachments (such as disk drives, video displays, printers, modems, etc.) that are connected to it. (Ref. 6)

hardware handshake: A protocol that tells the computer to start or stop sending data by setting the DTR (Data Terminal Ready) line logic state. The ImageWriter II changes the line’s state depending on the capacity of its input buffer. Also known as the Data Transfer Ready protocol. Compare with XON/XOFF. (Ref. 4)

Hayes-compatible modem: A modem that sets modes and features with a standard set of commands developed originally by Hayes Microcomputer Products. (Ref. 7)

head crash: Condition that occurs when read/write heads of a hard disk collide with surface of a platter and damage magnetic-media coating and data contained in the area of contact. (Ref. 9)

head parking: Moving a hard disk’s read/write heads from their operational position (hovering above a platter) to a safe “landing zone” when the drive is shut down. Unparked heads may touch the platter surface when the drive is moved, possibly causing a head crash. (Ref. 9)

heap: A portion of memory used by compilers to store pointer variables during program execution. A heap’s memory is organized like a stack; that is, from the bottom up. (Ref. 11)

Hz: An abbreviation for hertz (named for physicist Heinrich Hertz). It is the unit of frequency of vibration or oscillation, defined as the number of cycles per second. The 68000 microprocessor used in the Macintosh operates at 7.8336 MHz. (Ref. 13)

hexadecimal: A number represented in base-16 notation, in contrast to the more familiar decimal (or base-10) numbers, with which we are all more familiar. Hexadecimal digits go from 0-9 and A-F, where 10 (decimal) is $A, 11 (decimal) is $B, and so on. One byte can thus be represented by two hexadecimal digits. Hexadecimal numbers are often written with a preceding “$”, e.g., $FF means 255 (15 in the 16’s place, and 15 in the one’s place = 15 x 16 + 15 = 255). Hexadecimal is usually referred to in shorthand as “hex.” (Ref. 13)

HFS: An acronym for Hierarchical File System. The feature that lets you use folders to organize documents, applications, and other folders on a disk. Folders (analogous to subdirectories in other systems) can be nested in other folders to create as many levels in a hierarchy as you need. Opening a folder presents only the information you’ve put in that folder, so you can concentrate on that information without viewing everything on the disk. HFS is the second and current volume directory standard used by the Macintosh; MFS (Macintosh File System) was the first. (Refs. 1 and 9)

Hierarchical File System: See HFS.

high ASCII characters: ASCII characters with decimal values ranging from 128 through 255. Called high because the first, or high, bit of each character is set to 1 (for on) rather than to 0 (for off). (Ref. 4)

high-level language: A programming language such as BASIC or Pascal that incorporates elements of English into its syntax. (Ref. 7) A language that is (relatively!) easier for people to understand, in contrast to a low-level language like assembly language that is closer to the machine-language form the computer actually uses. (Ref. 13)

highlight: To make something visually distinct from its background, usually to show that it has been selected or chosen. (Ref. 1)

hollow icon: An icon that represents an opened disk or folder. (Ref. 1)

host: A computer set up to receive calls from other computers and interact in a controlled environment. (Ref. 29)

hot spot: The actual part of the pointer that has to be positioned over something for a click to select it (or have some other effect on it). The hot spot of the arrow pointer is its tip, and the hot spot of the crosshairs pointer is its center (where the two lines cross). (Ref. 22)

HyperCard: A program distributed by Apple that provides a graphical data storage and development environment. (Ref. 29)

HyperTalk: HyperCard’s built-in script language for HyperCard users. (Ref. 3)

I-beam: The I-shaped cursor used in entering and editing text. (Refs. 1 and 9)

IC: An acronym for Integrated Circuit. A single chip on which a number of circuit elements are combined. (Ref. 13)

icon: An image that graphically represents an object, a concept, or a message. For example, Disk First Aid is represented by an ambulance; CloseView is represented by a magnifying glass. (Ref. 5)

impact printer: A printer that forms characters or images by striking an inked ribbon against paper. (Ref. 7)

incremental backup: Process of backing up all files on a hard disk that were created, modified, or copied onto the disk since last global backup. See also progressive backup. (Ref. 2)

information network: A series of interconnected computer systems used to gather and disseminate information. (Ref. 29)

information service: A large commercial timesharing computer that gives users access to a wide variety of information. CompuServe, GEnie, and America Online are three examples. (Ref. 22)

information window: The window that appears when you select an icon, document, application, or folder, and choose Get Info from the File menu. It supplies information such as size, type, and date, and it includes a place for adding notes. (Ref. 1)

INIT file: An acronym for INITialization Resource. An easy way to customize the Macintosh’s operations with instructions which override the normal functioning of the ROM. INIT files are designed to be automatically launched whenever the Macintosh is booted up. To be activated, they must first be placed in the System Folder; if not, they will be ignored. (Refs. 6 and 9)

initialize: (1) To set something such as a variable to an initial state or value in preparation for some computation. (2) To prepare a blank disk to receive information by organizing its surface to tracks and sectors. You can initialize 800K disks on both sides or on just one side. (Refs. 1, 2 and 13) In the case of a floppy disk, it eliminates any chance of recovering data because the disk is completely cleared of information. (Ref. 14)

initiator: The SCSI device that initiates communication with another device on the daisychain. (Ref. 9)

ink-jet printer: A printer that forms characters or images by squirting tiny drops of ink onto paper. (Ref. 7)

insertion point: The place where something will be added or removed. Select the insertion point by clicking anywhere the I-beam pointer appears. The insertion point is highlighted by a blinking vertical bar. (Ref. 28)

install: To configure a program so as to work with a user’s or a computer’s specific requirements. (Ref. 13)

Installer: An application program provided by Apple that facilitates the installation of Chooser resources and updated System files on the Macintosh. Some third-party programs have their own installer programs as well. (Ref. 8)

integer: A whole number that can represent only integer (non-fractional) values within a certain range that depends on the number of bits used to store the integer, in contrast to a floating-point number, which can represent fractions and numbers larger than can be represented with an integer. (Ref. 13)

Integer BASIC: A version of the BASIC language that processes numbers in integer (fixed-point) form rather than in decimal (floating-point) form. Available for the Apple II family of computers. (Ref. 4)

integrated circuit: See IC.

Integrated Services Digital Network: See ISDN.

integrated software: Software that can perform more than one task. (Ref. 7)

interface: (1) The point at which independent systems or diverse groups interact. Specifically, the point of communication between a person and a computer. (2) The devices, rules, or conventions by which one component of a system communicates with another. (3) The part of a program that defines constants, variables, and data structures, rather than procedures. (Ref. 13) Hardware or software that links the computer to a device, such as a printer or modem. (Ref. 4) The manner in which two things communicate with each other. The Macintosh has a “graphic interface,” referring to the graphical nature of much of the information that is communicated between the user and the computer. By contrast, a “command line interface” describes the way a user communicates with a computer by typing commands one line at a time. Many information services have a command line interface. (Ref. 29)

interface card: See peripheral card. (Ref. 4)

interleave ratio: The ratio of hard disk platter rotations to the number of sectors to which the read/write heads read or write. For example, a drive with an interleave ratio of 1:1 will read or write to each sector as soon as it passes underneath the head. One with a 2:1 ratio will skip alternate sectors, waiting for them to rotate one more time before proceeding. (Ref. 9)

internal hard disk: A hard disk drive installed in the same casing as the computer it serves. (Ref. 9)

interpreter: A program that translates a high-level programming language into machine-readable code; the translation is done line by line. (Ref. 7) A language translator that reads a program instruction by instruction and immediately translates each instruction for the computer to carry out. A compiler, on the other hand, translates a whole series of instructions into machine language before anything can be executed. Applesoft BASIC is interpreted; Pascal is compiled. (Ref. 13)

interrupt: A temporary suspension in the execution of a program that allows the computer to perform some other, higher-priority task, typically in response to a signal from a peripheral device or other source external to the computer. (Ref. 13)

invert: To change a portion or all of your Macintosh screen so it appears as white on black instead of as black on white. (Ref. 5)

invisible attribute bit: When set, it prevents a file from being displayed on the desktop. See attribute bits. (Ref. 6)

invisible file: A file whose icon doesn’t appear in the Finder or Standard File boxes. (Ref. 9)

I/O: An acronym for Input/Output. The process of moving data to or from the computer, or to or from the central processing unit (CPU). (Ref. 13)

I/O connectors: Refers to the mouse, disk drive, printer, modem, and audio connectors at the back of the motherboard. (Ref. 10)

I/O errors: The failure of the Macintosh to read (input) or write (output) data on a disk. Flipped bits are the most common cause of I/O errors. (Ref. 6)

irregularity: Certain standards exist for how all Macintosh applications should be constructed. When an application deviates from these standards, this is an irregularity. However, applications containing irregularities are neither ill-behaved nor poorly designed, they are simply non-standard. (Ref. 14)

ISDN: An acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network. An internationally standardized telephone service based on digital signals. (Ref. 7)

ISO-7: A group of variants of the standard ASCII character set. The ISO-7 is a group of 7-bit standard character sets for British, French, French Canadian, German, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish as established by the International Standards Organization. (Ref. 29)

italic: A characteristic of a typeface that has upright strokes at an angle to the vertical axis. (Ref. 18)

JSR: An acronym for Jump to SubRoutine. (Ref. 11)

jumper: A small metal area on a printed-circuit board that is intended to be cut or soldered to another metal area to break or make a connection. Such connections usually enable or disable features that the manufacturer wanted some but not all users to be able to use. (Ref. 13)

justify: To space every line of a paragraph (except the last) so that it’s aligned with both the left and the right margins. (Ref. 16)

K: From the Greek prefix “kilo,” or 1,000. In the computer field “K”usually means 1,024, or 2 to the 10th power. Random-access memory sizes are usually given in kilobytes, or “K’s.” The lowercase “k,” however, usually refers to kilobits, not bytes. Thus “256k RAM chips” mean that each chip has one-eighth of the total RAM in a 256K computer. (Ref. 13)

Kbps: See kilobits per second.

Kermit: A file transfer protocol developed in the early 1980s under the guidance of Frank da Cruz at Columbia University. This file transfer protocol features error correction, batch transfers, the ability to transmit 8-bit binary files in a 7-bit environment, and special text transfer capabilities. Kermit is used widely by universities, research institutions, government agencies, and businesses. (Ref. 29)

kerning: In phototypesetting, adjusting the spacing between letters; specifically, reducing the space between certain pairs of letters (kerning pairs) for the best appearance. (Ref. 7)

keyboard: On a computer, several rows of keys with characters on the key caps, used to type commands and data. On a synthesizer, a row of black and white keys used to play musical notes. (Ref. 24)

keyboard equivalent key: A key you press together with the Command key (and sometimes in combination with the Shift key and/or Option key) to issue a menu command. (Ref. 3)

keyboard macro: A single set of keystrokes or a single command key that, when pressed, executes many keystrokes, mouse movements, or both; the user assigns macros with a keyboard redefinition program. (Ref. 7)

key disk: In a copy-protected program, the floppy disk you must use to start the program. (Ref. 7)

kilobits per second (Kbps): Thousands of bits per second; a measure of data transfer speed. (Ref. 7)

kilobyte: 1024 bytes; the most common measure of computer file size or memory capacity. Often abbreviated as KB or K (as in 800K floppy). A typical double-spaced typewritten page is 1.5 KB. (Refs. 7 and 9)

LAN: An acronym for Local Area Network. A group of computers linked physically by a network of communications cables. (Ref. 1) It usually includes cabling, network software, and application software. (Ref. 14)

Laser Prep file: One of the two files — the other is the LaserWriter Chooser resource — used by the Macintosh to print onto a LaserWriter or other PostScript device. The Laser Prep file translates the Mac screen’s QuickDraw image into the PostScript language for printing. (Ref. 8)

laser printer: A high-speed printer that uses laser light to charge a plate on which toner is deposited to print text or graphics. Laser printers are, in effect, like small photocopiers, and use much of the same technology. Laser printers are generally faster than dot-matrix printers and produce type that is virtually indistinguishable from daisy-wheel printers. They are also very quiet and, unfortunately, more expensive than other types of printers. (Ref. 13)

launching: The act of starting an application, it is done in a number of ways: automatically during startup, by double-clicking on an icon, or when a document created with a particular application is opened. (Ref. 9)

LCD: An acronym for Liquid-Crystal Display. A type of display that uses polarized liquid crystals to create text and graphics. The technology involved is commonly employed in synthesizer displays and sometimes in computer monitors. (Ref. 24)

leader: A series of characters (dots, dashes, or an underline) that fill the space between text and a tab stop. (Ref. 17)

leading: Pronounced “LED-ing.” Leading refers to the space between the baseline of one line of text and the baseline of the next line of text. Leading is sometimes used to refer to the blank space between two lines of text, although this is usually regarded as loose usage. (Ref. 13)

least significant bit: In a binary number, the bit that is located farthest to the right. (Ref. 24)

least significant byte: See LSB.

LED: An acronym for Light Emitting Diode. 400K Mac drives, most hard drives, and some external 800K drives use LEDs for lights. (Ref. 10)

LED display: A type of display that uses glowing diodes to create text and graphics. The technology involved is commonly employed in synthesizer displays and occasionally in computer monitors. (Ref. 24)

lever: The little arm that appears when you choose the Alarm Clock desk accessory. When you click the lever, two panels appear that let you set the time, the date, and the alarm. (Ref. 1)

light emitting diode: See LED.

line feed: A control character (ASCII value 10) that advances the printer to the next line of paper or the cursor to the next line of the screen. See return. (Ref. 13)

line feed pitch: The number of lines of text printed per vertical inch. (Ref. 4)

line noise: Spurious signals that are introduced between points of communication. Line noise can slow down data transmission and reduce the accuracy of the information sent. (Ref. 29)

linked files, live links: Interdependent documents organized so that when a change is made in one document, the dependent documents are also automatically changed. (Ref. 7)

liquid-crystal display: See LCD.

loading: The process in which the Macintosh conveys data from a storage volume to a location where it can be used or rapidly accessed (usually the RAM). (Ref. 9)

local area network: See LAN.

local echo: A setting that assures that every character typed on the keyboard is immediately displayed on the screen as well as transmitted to its destination. Local echo is useful when the remote computer does not send back to the local terminal characters typed on the local keyboard. See also echo. (Ref. 29)

LocalTalk: Apple’s connection standard, which allows multiple Macs to share laser printers and other AppleTalk devices. Formerly called AppleTalk. (Ref. 9)

lock: To prevent documents from being edited, discarded, or renamed, or to prevent entire disks from being altered. (Ref. 1) Files can be locked with software commands. Entire disks can be physically locked by using a write-protect tab on the disk jacket; in this sense “lock” is synonymous with write-protect. (Ref. 13)

locked attribute bits: When set, it prevents a file from being modified, deleted, or replaced, thereby keeping a file from being unintentionally lost or destroyed. See attribute bits. (Ref. 6)

logical volume: A software-defined partition in a single physical disk; to the user, each logical volume behaves as if it were an independent disk in an independent disk drive. (Ref. 7)

loop: A loop is a block of instructions in a script or program that is executed repeatedly until some defined condition is reached. (Ref. 29)

low-level language: A language like assembly language that is close to the machine language that a computer understands, in contrast to a high-level language like Pascal that is easier for people to understand. (Ref. 13)

LQ: An acronym for Letter-Quality. Said of printers. (Ref. 22)

LSB: An acronym for Least Significant Byte The byte in a series of combined bytes located farthest to the right. (Ref. 24)

MacBinary: A superset of the XMODEM telecommunications protocol that transmits, in addition to the file itself, other information about the file that the Macintosh normally stores separately, such as the file’s icon, the file type and the file’s creator. (Ref. 13)

machine code: Instructions to the computer in binary code (that is, 0s and 1s). A compiler takes your high-level instructions and translates them into machine code. (Ref. 11)

machine language: See machine code.

Macintosh File System: See MFS.

MacPaint: In addition to being the first paint program on the Mac, MacPaint is also the name of a standard graphics format for low-resolution (72-dpi) bit-mapped images. Compare with EPS, PICT, and TIFF. (Ref. 22)

macro: A sequence of commands distilled into a single, shorter command. Macro utilities save time by automating often-used functions. A complex series of commands can be activated with a single keystroke. (Ref. 9) Telecommunication programs can use macros to dial a phone number, log onto a BBS, download messages, and log off — all without human intervention. (Ref. 13) See also keyboard macro.

magnetic media: The types of media to which a computer can write magnetic patterns. These patterns are interpreted as data by the computer during the reading process. Magnetic tape, hard disks, and floppy disks are examples. (Ref. 9)

mainframe: A large traditional computer usually shared by many users. The central processing unit, disk drives, and tape drives are normally housed in an air-conditioned room; user-operated terminals may be scattered all over. (Ref. 7)

main unit: The computer console, which contains the processor, memory, the built-in disk drive, and the screen. (Ref. 1)

mark parity: A method of parity error checking in which the parity bit is always set to 1. See also parity. (Ref. 29)

Mbps: See megabits per second.

megabits per second (Mbps): Millions of bits per second; a measure of data transfer speed. (Ref. 7)

megabyte (MB): A unit of measurement equal to 1024 kilobytes. (Refs. 1 and 9) From the Greek prefix “mega,” or million, in the computer field it means 1,048,576 bytes, a number equal to 2 to the 20th power. Also called a “meg.” Hard disk sizes are usually given in megabytes. In case you want to know, the next larger increment is “terabytes,” or a trillion bytes. (Ref. 13)

megahertz (MHz): One million hertz. Abbreviated MHz. (Ref. 13)

memory: The place in the computer’s main unit that stores information. The Macintosh has three types of memory: ROM, RAM, and Parameter RAM. (Refs. 1 and 6)

menu: A list of commands that appears when you point to and press the menu title in the menu bar. Dragging through the menu and releasing the mouse button while a command is highlighted chooses that command. (Ref. 1)

menu bar: The horizontal strip at the top of the screen that contains menu titles. (Ref. 1)

menu-driven interface: A boundary between user and computer in which the user issues commands by choosing items from a series of menus. (Ref. 7)

menu-initial interface: A boundary between user and computer in which the user issues commands by choosing menu items identified by a single letter. (Ref. 7)

menu-word interface: A boundary between user and computer in which the user issues commands by choosing menu items identified by single words arranged in a line or two on the screen. (Ref. 7)

menu title: A word or phrase in the menu bar that designates one menu. Pressing on the menu title causes the title to be highlighted and its menu to appear below it. (Ref. 1)

MFS: An acronym for Macintosh File System. Used by the 128K Macintosh, the 512K Macintosh, and the Macintosh XL. Under MFS, detailed information is maintained about the individual files that are stored on a disk, but not about folders. Folders can’t be nested under MFS, so it has been replaced by HFS. (Refs. 6 and 9)

MHz: See megahertz.

microcomputer: A small computer designed in size and price to serve (primarily) a single person; also known as personal computer and home computer. (Ref. 7)

microfloppy (disk): A 3-1/2-inch flexible disk within a semirigid plastic envelope; used in the Macintosh and many other computer brands. (Ref. 7)

microprocessor: A small, integrated circuit component that performs a complete set of computing functions. The computer’s brain. (Ref. 4) The microprocessor is the computer’s central processing unit. (Ref. 13)

MIDI: An acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. MIDI is a communications standard for exchanging data between musical instruments and associated devices. (Ref. 24)

MIDI port: A 5-pin socket built into a MIDI device, used to plug in a MIDI cable. There are three kinds of MIDI ports: MIDI In, which receives MIDI data; MIDI Out, which sends MIDI data; and MIDI Thru, which passes a copy of MIDI data received through the MIDI In port. (Ref. 24)

millisecond (ms): One thousandth of a second. (Ref. 7)

minicomputer: A computer the size of which is smaller than a mainframe but larger than a microcomputer. (Ref. 13)

minifloppy: A 5-1/4-inch flexible computer disk, very common in microcomputers. (Ref. 7)

modem: An acronym for MOdulator/DEModulator; a peripheral device through which a computer can send and receive data over telephone lines. (Ref. 4) A device that converts a computer’s digital output into sounds that can be transmitted over telephone lines, and, at the other end, can convert those sounds back into digital input to another computer. (Ref. 13)

modifier key: A key that you press in combination with a readable character to change its meaning. Sometimes you press a modifier key to change the action of clicking or dragging. (Ref. 5) The standard modifier keys are Shift, Option, Command, Caps Lock, and control. (Ref. 14)

monitor: A video device that receives signals from a computer for display on a cathode-ray tube (CRT). (Ref. 13)

monospaced: Said of fonts where all the characters occupy the same amount of horizontal space. One such font on the Mac is Monaco. Compare with proportional spacing. (Ref. 22)

most significant bit: In a binary number, the bit that is located farthest to the left. (Ref. 24)

most significant byte: See MSB.

motherboard: The printed-circuit board which contains the most important parts of the computer system — CPU, memory, keyboard controller, etc. (Ref. 9) Also referred to as the logic board. (Ref. 10) Sometimes the power supply (and other support circuitry) is located on the motherboard, but usually it is on a separate board or mounted separately in the computer. (Ref. 13)

mounted volume: An online volume. (Ref. 9)

mounting: The act of rendering a storage volume usable during the current work session. A hard disk, floppy, or other volume is mounted when its icon appears on the desktop. (Ref. 9)

mouse: A small device about the size of a deck of cards you move around on a flat surface next to your computer. The mouse controls a pointer on the screen whose relative movements correspond to those the mouse makes while in contact with the desktop. You use the pointer to select operations, to move data, and to draw. (Ref. 13)

mouse button: The button on the top of the mouse. In general, pressing the mouse button initiates some action on whatever is under the pointer, and releasing the button confirms the action. (Ref. 1)

MPW: An acronym for Macintosh Programming Workshop.

MSB: An acronym for Most Significant Byte. In a series of combined bytes, the byte located farthest to the left. (Ref. 24)

MS-DOS: An acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System. It’s the operating system that governs the IBM PC (under the name PC-DOS) and compatible computers. (Ref. 5)

MultiFinder: A program that manages Apple’s multi-tasking environment. It permits multiple applications to be open simultaneously. (Ref. 6)

multiple selection: A selection that contains more than one item. (Ref. 28)

multi-tasking: A computer processing technique in which several programs are loaded simultaneously into memory; the CPU pays attention to all the programs by switching rapidly among them in a procedure known as time slicing. See also context switching. (Ref. 7) The ability (of a computer) to perform more than one task at the same time. For example, a computer capable of multi-tasking would be able to recalculate a spreadsheet at the same time it is printing. (Ref. 13)

musical notation software: A type of computer program that allows the user to write, edit, and print music in traditional musical notation. Some musical notation software can translate a musical performance directly into notated music. (Ref. 24)

NAK: A control character (^ U) sent by a receiver of a file to inform the sender that a block of data was not properly received. (Ref. 29)

name: Every file on a disk has a unique name. It cannot include a colon (:) and (under MFS) it cannot have the same name as the disk or another file on the disk. (Ref. 6)

nanosecond (ns): One billionth of a second. (Ref. 7)

nesting: Placing folders inside other folders. See HFS (hierarchical file system). (Ref. 1)

network: A group of individually controlled computers linked together with peripherals. Through hardware and software, the computers can share information and other resources. AppleTalk is an office network. (Ref. 4)

nibble: Half a byte. We’re serious — a nibble is four bits (a byte is eight bits). (Ref. 13)

NLQ: An acronym for Near Letter-Quality. Said of printers. (Ref. 22)

node: Any device on a network that can send and/or receive information. (Ref. 7)

noise: Random electrical pulses that may occur in the telephone lines; such impulses may be caused by hardware components or external electrical interference. (Ref. 29)

nonprinting characters: Characters that appear only as blank space when printed (for example: spaces, Return characters, and page break characters). (Ref. 16) Compare with printing characters.

NOP: An acronym for No OPeration. An assembly-language instruction that does nothing, i.e., it performs no operation. Some say that the difference between a computer and some other “lower” computational device is that only a computer could have an instruction that doesn’t do anything. (Ref. 13)

ns: An acronym for nanosecond.

NTSC: An acronym for the National Television Standards Committee, which defined the standard format used for transmitting broadcast video signals in the United States. (Ref. 13)

NuBus: The bus used in the Mac II. (Ref. 9)

null: A value of nothing. Null is different from zero. A null string, for example, would be “”, or no characters at all. A null line is a line with no characters in it, i.e., it has only a Return character to signify the end of the line. (Ref. 13)

null modem: A communication cable between two computers; used in lieu of modems. (Ref. 7)

numeric keys: Keys on the right of the keyboard that let you enter numbers and perform calculations quickly. (Ref. 1)

object code: In programming, the executable code or machine-language program produced by the compiler. (Ref. 7) The usually-machine-readable result of a compiler’s or assembler’s translation of source code. (Ref. 13)

oblique: A slanted version of a roman typeface. Some oblique faces are created by type designers, while others are produced with computer commands. (Ref. 21)

OCR: An acronym for Optical Character Recognition. The technology by which typed or printed documents are optically scanned and the text turned into the codes for characters that a computer can process; the device for software that does this. See also scanner. (Ref. 7)

odd parity: A method of parity error checking in which a parity is added to a group of bits to keep the total number of 1s in the group odd. If the number of 1s in the group is even, the parity bit is set to 1, so that the final total for the group is odd. If the number of 1s in the group is already odd, then the parity bit is set to 0, keeping the total number of 1s odd. See also parity. (Ref. 29)

off-line: A device not currently accessible by the Macintosh. It may be nonoperational, turned off, or improperly connected, or it may be that the computer does not have the software necessary to control it. Volumes are considered off-line when not mounted on the desktop. (Ref. 9)

on-line: A device currently accessible by the Macintosh, properly powered and connected, with the necessary controlling software provided. Synonymous with “mounted” in respect to storage volumes. (Ref. 9) Currently connected to a BBS or mainframe service such as America Online or CompuServe. (Ref. 13)

on-line help: Assistance you can get from an application program while it’s running. (Ref. 3)

OOP: An acronym for Object Oriented Programming.

open: Create a window from an icon so you can view a document or directory. (Ref. 1) A command used to run an application or load a document into the computer. (Ref. 13)

operating system: A program that organizes the actions of the parts of the computer and its peripheral devices. (Ref. 5) Operating systems typically control such things as the display of text on the monitor; the computer’s response to pressing keys; the disk drives, printers and other peripherals; and basic sounds. (Ref. 13)

operating system software: Programs such as the System, Finder, printer files, etc. which applications rely upon for common operations. They are necessary to start up the Mac and/or for the proper functioning of applications. To be accessed properly, they must be kept in the System Folder. (Ref. 6)

operator: Special symbols such as + (addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication), and / (division) that call for the program to compute a value in an expression. For example, “+” is an operator in the expression “2 + 3”. (Ref. 29)

optical character recognition,                                    optical character reader: See OCR.

optical disk: A disk with a reflective finish, on whose surface music or data is recorded in the form of tiny deformations and from which the music or data can be played back by a laser beam. (Ref. 7)

optical fiber: A long thin strand of glass that carries information as a modulated light beam: can handle far higher communication rates than wire connections. (Ref. 7)

option card: Specialized functions controlled by an electronic function card; some examples include accelerators and co-processors. (Ref. 15)

Option key: A key used like the Shift key to give an alternate interpretation to another key you type. You use it to type foreign characters or special symbols. (Ref. 1)

orientation: A page’s position: regular (portrait) or sideways (landscape). (Ref. 17)

orphan: In word processing and typography, a condition when the last line of a paragraph appears at the top of the following page. Compare with widow. (Ref. 27)

outline font: A type of font defined mathematically, with lines and curves, rather than with bitmaps. PostScript fonts are outline fonts. Examples of non-outline Macintosh fonts are Chicago, San Francisco and Los Angeles. (Ref. 19)

output: Data transferred from a computer to a peripheral device, such as a video display, printer, disk drive, or modem. (Ref. 4)

overlay: A program fragment stored on disk until needed by the program core. Necessary with some large programs that cannot entirely fit into random-access memory; the overlays are brought in as needed, each replacing one no longer in use. (Ref. 7)

override: To modify or cancel one instruction with another. For example, you might override a DIP switch setting with an escape sequence. (Ref. 4)

packet: A formatted stream of bits, consisting of data and control elements, that is transmitted as a single unit. File transfer protocols divide a file into a series of packets, which differ in format and meaning from protocol to protocol. Also called block. (Ref. 29)

page: Area of memory containing text or graphic information displayed on the screen. (Ref. 13)

paragraph: Text ended with a Return keystroke. (Ref. 28)

parallel: A method of transmitting several bits of information, typically eight (a full byte) at one time from a computer to a peripheral device such as a printer. Most peripherals today use the serial interface standard. (Ref. 13)

parallel interface: An interface that transmits multiple bits simultaneously (usually in one-byte lengths). Compare with serial interface. (Ref. 4)

parallel port: An electrical connection to a computer through which eight or more bits are transmitted simultaneously in one direction; specifically, a Centronics parallel port. (Ref. 7)

Parameter RAM: See PRAM.

parent application: The application used to create a document, as opposed to any others that may be able to open, convert, or modify it. In order to know which application to launch when a document is opened, the Macintosh labels each document with the parent application’s distinctive creator ID. (Ref. 9)

parity: The sameness of level or count, usually the count of 1 bits in each character, used for error checking in data transmission. Most data transmission does not use parity to check for errors, hence the expression “no parity.” If parity is used, it is usually even parity, i.e., if the number of 1 bits transmitted in a character is odd, a parity bit of 1 is sent to make the total number of 1 bits come out even. If the number of 1 bits in the character is even, a parity bit of 0 is sent, keeping the count even. A receiving computer can check the number of 1 bits in a character, and if the number is not even, something is wrong and the character should be rejected. Parity can also be odd, mark, or space — the latter two of which are beyond the scope of this glossary, as they are seldom used in microcomputers today. (Ref. 13)

partition: A volume created by dividing the storage space on a hard disk into two or more separate entities. Also known as a logical volume. (Ref. 9)

Pascal: A high-level programming language invented by Niklaus Wirth, a Swiss professor of computer science who believed that programs should consist of well-defined data structures and well-structured procedural steps. (Ref. 13)

password: A confidential string of alphanumeric characters that permits a user access to a system, database or application. (Ref. 29)

paste: To put a copy of the contents of the Clipboard — whatever was last cut or copied — at the insertion point. (Ref. 1)

path: The specific route to be navigated from a disk directory and through folders or subdirectories to locate a particular file or folder. (Ref. 8)

path name: The written expression of a path. A file called Reports inside a folder called Business on a disk called Work would have the path name, Work:Business:Reports. Path names always contain colons between the directory, folder, and file names, without any extra spaces, as shown in the example. (Ref. 8)

PBX (Private Branch Exchange): The private telephone switchboard within an organization. (Ref. 7)

PC: Acronym for Personal Computer. “PC” without other letters or words is not a trademark. (Ref. 13)

PC board: A shortened version of printed-circuit board. (Ref. 10)

PEEK: A BASIC command that retrieves the contents of a specified memory location. Thus, J = PEEK (34) would store the value of memory location 34 in the variable J. Compare with POKE. (Ref. 13)

peripheral card: A removable printed circuit board that plugs into one of the expansion slots in a computer. Such cards can either transfer computer data to a peripheral device, such as a printer or modem, or expand the computer’s own capabilities by adding extra memory or an extra microprocessor. (Ref. 4)

peripheral device: A piece of computer hardware — such as a disk drive, printer, or modem — used in conjunction with a computer and under the computer’s control. Peripheral devices are usually physically separate from the computer and connected to it by wires or cables. (Ref. 1)

perphory: The portion of pin-feed paper that contains the sprocket holes and is torn off after printing is complete. (Ref. 13)

phosphor: Any material that emits visible light when struck by an electron beam; used in CRTs. (Ref. 7)

pica: A unit of measure equal to one-sixth of an inch. Picas are usually used by printers to determine the width of columns. (Ref. 13)

PICT: The standard format for exchanging graphics between applications on the Macintosh. A PICT can contain bitmaps or objects, or both. (Ref. 19) A file format for object-oriented graphic images. (Ref. 20)

pin-feed paper: Special paper with sprocket holes along both edges so that the paper can be pulled evenly by the pins on the paper tractor of the printer. (Ref. 13)

pitch: The number of printed characters that fill up an inch in horizontal measure. For example, many printers will print in 10-pitch, or ten characters per inch. See font size and compare with point. (Ref. 13)

pixel: A picture element, or dot, in an image. Sometimes elaborated into two types: a pel consisting only of on/off or black/white information and a pixel containing further attributes, such as shades of gray or color. (Ref. 7) Abbreviation of picture element, a pixel is usually the smallest resolvable point on a computer’s screen. (Ref. 13) The original Macintosh screen is 512 pixels wide by 342 pixels high. Dividing its width (7.1 inches) by its height (4.75 inches) by these numbers gives a resolution of 72 pixels per inch, commonly called dots per inch (dpi). (Ref. 19)

platen: The rubber roller in a printer that provides support for the paper while the printhead prints on it. (Ref. 13)

platters: A flat, circular, rotating disk on which data is stored. (Ref. 9)

point: In typography, a unit of measurement approximately equal to 1/72-inch. (Ref. 7) Points can be measured either horizontally or vertically, but typeface sizes are measured in vertical distances. Unfortunately, some fonts that appear to be the same size are not: 9-point Geneva is actually one pixel taller than 9-point Monaco. See pitch and font size. (Ref. 13)

pointer: A small shape on the screen, most often an arrow pointing up and to the left, that follows the movement of the mouse. Used to select items and initiate commands. (Refs. 1 and 9)

POKE: A BASIC command that stores a specific value in a specified memory location. Thus, POKE 34, 10 would store the value 10 in memory location 34. Compare with PEEK. (Ref. 13)

pop-up menu: A menu that appears somewhere else other than the menu bar, usually in a dialog box, and is identified by a shadowed box. (Ref. 14)

port: A socket on the back panel of the computer where you can plug in a cable to connect a peripheral device, another computer, or a network. (Ref. 1)

PostScript: A computer language developed by Adobe Systems, Inc., to describe an image — text as well as graphics — for printing; used by the LaserWriter and other PostScript-compatible printers to specify exactly what is printed from a file. Can also be adapted to driving a video display. (Refs. 7 and 8)

power strip: An electrical device with multiple sockets for plugging in a computer and peripheral devices. Power strips usually include a master on-off switch and often contain a voltage filter to protect against spikes caused by thunderstorms and other power surges. (Ref. 13)

power user: Someone who demands more from hardware and software than the average user. Power users want the most efficient and flexible tools with which to perform their work. (Ref. 26)

PRAM: An acronym for Parameter RAM. The part of the Macintosh that remembers the information that is set by the Control Panel desk accessory. This information is not lost when the Mac is turned off because the Parameter RAM is powered by a battery. (Ref. 6) For example, Parameter RAM may store the current time or the user’s preferred desktop pattern. (Ref. 13)

press: To position the pointer on something and then hold down the mouse button without moving the mouse. (Ref. 1)

printed circuit: Refers to the copper tracing on a circuit board. (Ref. 10)

printed-circuit board: A hardware component of a computer or other electronic device, consisting of a flat, rectangular piece of rigid material, commonly fiberglass, to which integrated circuits and other electronic components are connected. (Ref. 13)

printer driver: See printing resource.

printer font: A file used by a printer or other output device to render text at a high degree of resolution. (Ref. 9)

printhead: The part of a printer that moves horizontally along the platen and performs the actual printing. (Ref. 13)

printing characters: Characters that are visible both on the screen and when the document is printed (for example: letters, numbers, and punctuation marks). (Ref. 16) Compare with nonprinting characters.

printout: Text and graphics printed on paper by a printer. (Ref. 4)

printer port: The serial port designed for connection to a printer. (Ref. 7)

printing resource: A system file that lets you print on a corresponding printer attached to the Macintosh. Sometimes called a printer driver. (Ref. 1)

printer server: A printer on a network; available to all network users. (Ref. 7)

printer spooler: An application that takes over the process of printing a file, handling the processing and transmission of the printed file from a special area of a disk or memory so you regain use of the computer more quickly than if the Mac’s normal resources had to handle printing. (Ref. 8)

priority number: A number assigned to each SCSI device connected to a computer telling the computer which device to give priority when sending and receiving files. Some devices, such as internal hard disks, have preset priority numbers. On others, such as external hard disks, you use a priority switch to set priority. (Ref. 2)

procedure: In Pascal, LOGO, and other languages, a set of instructions that work as a unit. (Ref. 13)

processor: A shortened version of central processing unit (CPU).

ProDOS: An acronym for Professional Disk Operating System. It’s the operating system that today controls most Apple II-family computers. (Ref. 5)

program: Software that gives instructions to the Macintosh about how to do something. Programs fall into two general categories: applications and operating system software. (Ref. 6) (n) A set of instructions describing actions for a computer to perform to accomplish some task, conforming to the rules and conventions of a particular programming language. (v) To write a program. (Ref. 13)

programming language: The words, symbols, numbers, and grammar used to give instructions to a computer. (Ref. 7)

progressive backup: Backing up all files that have changed since the last backup. See also incremental backup. (Ref. 9)

PROM: An acronym for Programmable ROM. One you can change with a special device. (Refs. 10 and 22)

proportional spacing: Printing in which wider letters (such as “M” or “W”) take up more space than narrow ones (such as “i” or “l”). Compare with monospaced. (Ref. 7)

protected attribute bit: When set, indicates that the file is protected, and prevents the file from being moved or duplicated. See attribute bits. (Ref. 6)

protocol: In telecommunications, a set of rules and procedures governing how information travels between computers and other electronic devices. Hardware protocols define parameters such as the timing and frequency of the electrical signal; software protocols specify the details of the signal’s content. (Ref. 7) Protocols are generally determined by a particular company (for example, Apple Computer, Inc.’s AppleTalk) or by industry agreement (such as RS-232 or CCITT). (Ref. 13)

pseudo-random numbers: A sequence of numbers, determined by some defined arithmetic process, that is satisfactorily close to a true random sequence for a given purpose. Pseudo-random numbers are used to simulate games of chance, such as card or dice games. (Ref. 13)

public-domain software: Programs may be used and copied without further permis-sion from (or royalty payments to) the author. Compare with shareware. (Ref. 13)

pull-down menu: A computer menu that appears on the screen only when requested; until then, only the menu titles are visible. (Ref. 7)

queue: An ordered arrangement of items or tasks to be processed in that order. For example, the Macintosh uses an event queue to keep track of keypresses and mouse clicks until they can be processed by an application. (Ref. 13)

QuickDraw: The programs in the Macintosh ROM that generate images (text and graphics) on the screen and for printers. Designed principally for video screen and dot-matrix printer resolution; does not offer the fine control of PostScript. (Ref. 7)

QWERTY keyboard: The standard layout of keys on a typewriter keyboard; named for the first six letters on the top row of letter keys. Compare with Dvorak keyboard. (Ref. 13)

radio buttons: A series of buttons in which only one button can be selected. Selecting one radio button in a set automatically deselects the one previously selected. (Ref. 28)

RAM: An acronym for Random-Access Memory. The part of the Macintosh memory that stores information temporarily while you’re working on it. Also known as working memory. When you load a program and data into the computer, you load them into RAM. Likewise, what you type at the keyboard goes into RAM. Information in RAM is temporary, gone forever if you switch the power off. An exception to this is a small amount of memory used to save settings, such as the clock and the speaker volume, that’s powered by a battery when your Macintosh is switched off. Compare with ROM. (Refs. 1 and 4)

RAM cache: RAM you can designate to store certain information an application uses repeatedly. Using the RAM cache can greatly speed up your work, but may need to be used sparingly or not at all with applications that require large amounts of memory. You set the RAM cache in the Control Panel. (Ref. 1)

RAM disk: Portion of random-access memory set aside to behave like a disk. (Ref. 7)

random-access memory: See RAM.

raw data transfer rate: In a disk drive or on a network, the peak speed at which information is transferred to and from the computer; usually much higher than the average transfer rate. (Ref. 7)

RDEV: An acronym for ChooseR DEVice. RDEVs are special resources your Macintosh uses in conjunction with your various output components, such as a printer. When you select the Chooser from the Apple menu, the RDEVs located in the top level of your System Folder are accessible through the Chooser window. (Ref. 14)

read: To transfer information from a source outside the computer, such as a disk, into the computer’s memory. Compare with write. (Ref. 13)

Read Me documents: Documents that are included on application and system software disks that provide you with late-breaking information about the product. You’ll usually find Read Me documents in the Update Folder on the disk. (Ref. 1)

read-only memory: See ROM.

read/write heads: The component of a hard disk that records and retrieves data to and from the sectors. (Ref. 9)

reboot: To restart the computer. See also boot. (Ref. 29)

record: A set of items (fields) in a database. In an address database, a complete address is a record. (Ref. 7)

relational database: A database in which any field or record can be associated with any other field or record. (Ref. 7) Databases that are not relational are sometimes called “flat” databases or “file managers.” (Ref. 13)

remote: A computer that is physically connected via a modem or cable. (Ref. 29)

resolution: The density of dots for any given output device. The unit of measure is dots per inch (dpi). Higher resolution means smoother curves and angles as well as a better match to traditional typeface designs. The screen is a relatively low-resolution device, containing approximately 72 dpi. The LaserWriter printer is a medium-resolution device, with approximately 300 dpi. An example of a high-resolution device is a Linotronic 300 typesetter with 2540 dpi. (Ref. 18)

resource: A piece of information, stored in a resource file, that can be accessed by its type and ID. (Ref. 11)

resource file: A file containing resources used by an application. (Ref. 9)

resource fork: The portion of a Macintosh disk file that contains the program code, font information, and other data not normally generated directly by the user. Most programs consist primarily of resources which are stored in the resource fork. If a program is damaged, it is sometimes possible to identify it by the text in the resource fork. (Refs. 6 and 7) A typical Macintosh file is comprised of two separate forks; the resource fork and the data fork. Each fork contains separate and distinct data. The data fork contains data. The resource fork, among other things, can contain executable code, dialog boxes, and other entities the Macintosh uses. For example, when you are running an application and you choose the “Save” command, the resource fork contains the instructions that take care of the steps required to move the document you have created from the application onto the volume where you want it stored (for example, your hard disk). (Ref. 14)

resource ID: A number that helps identify a resource in a resource file. Each resource must have an ID number. (Ref. 9)

resource manager: The part of the Macintosh operating system software that handles functions relating to various resources. For example, when an application needs to display a dialog box, it calls on the resource manager to locate the dialog box. (Ref. 14)

Restart: The command on the Finder’s Special menu that causes your Macintosh to start up as if you turned it on. (Ref. 14)

restore: The process of taking files which have been backed up and putting them back onto a disk so they can again be used. (Ref. 26)

Return: A character, sometimes called carriage return, that makes the cursor or insertion point (on a computer monitor) or the printhead on a printer move to the left-most position on the line. Today, Return almost always also means advancing to the next line as well; but in olden days, Return did not advance to the next line — line feed did that. The ASCII value of Return is 13. (Ref. 13)

Return key: A key that makes the insertion point move to the beginning of the next line. It’s sometimes used to confirm or terminate an entry or a command. (Ref. 1)

RFI: An acronym for Radio Frequency Interference. The RFI shield is a thin piece of aluminum-colored material which covers the I/O connectors at the back of the Macintosh. It helps to keep the computer from interfering with radio/TV reception. (Ref. 10)

RF Modulator: A device that modulates the Radio Frequencies (more accurately, television frequencies) that come out of your computer’s “video out” port into other frequencies that will work with a television set (Ref. 13)

RFTDCA: An acronym for Revisable-Form-Text Document Content Architecture. A computer text-file format that contains both text and formatting information; used for converting documents from one word processor to another. See also DCA. (Ref. 7)

ROM: An acronym for Read-Only Memory. A memory chip, the contents of which can only be read. ROM cannot be written to or otherwise modified; used for storing firmware. ROM carries data built into it when manufactured. ROM’s normally store the basic startup and operating information for computers and peripherals. Information in ROM is permanent; it doesn’t vanish when you switch the power off. Compare with RAM. (Refs. 1 and 4)

roman: The medium-weight, non-italic member of a typeface family. (Ref. 18) Called “plain” in Mac font menus. (Ref. 21)

root directory: On an HFS disk, the main directory, which corresponds to the disk window, is called the root directory. All files in the disk window or on the desktop are kept track of here. (Ref. 25)

round-robin: A computer processing technique in which several programs are simultaneously loaded into memory, and the CPU pays attention to each one in turn. (Ref. 7)

RS-170: Recommended standard (RS) specification for a composite video signal compatible with broadcast standards in North America and Japan (straight video, not radio-frequency modulated); set by the Electronic Industries Association. (Ref. 7)

RS-232: An industry-standard protocol for two devices, such as a computer and a printer or a computer and a modem, to communicate over a serial connection. In RS-232, one of the devices is called Data Communications Equipment (DCE) and the other is called Data Terminal Equipment (DTE). Each of the devices uses certain pins in a DB-25 or similar connector to send and receive signals. (Ref. 13)

RS-422, -423, -232C: Recommended standards (RS) for serial computer interfaces; set by the Electronic Industries Association. (Ref. 7)

RTF: An acronym for Rich Text Format. A file format developed by Microsoft Corporation that serves as an intermediate step in the process of converting from one document type to another. (Ref. 16)

run: To instruct a computer program to begin. See open. (Ref. 13)

run-time error: An error that occurs while a program is executing. (Ref. 11)

SANE: An acronym for Standard Apple Numeric Environment. A set of algorithms used to perform certain mathematical calculations in a way that complies with the IEEE standard for precision and accuracy. (Ref. 13)

sans serif: Said of a font that has no serifs. (Ref. 22)

save: To store information (either data or a program) currently in memory onto a disk. (Ref. 13)

scanner: A device that scans a printed page and converts graphic images into a form that can be processed by a computer. See also optical character recognition. (Ref. 7)

Scrapbook: A desk accessory in which you save and transfer frequently used information (text, pictures, and other data) among files created with different programs. The Scrapbook operates like the Clipboard except that it is saved on disk. (Refs. 1 and 7)

scratch: Disk space not normally available in the Macintosh operating system, but requested by some programs — for use as temporary storage. (Ref. 5)

screen dump: A pixel-for-pixel screen image printed on paper or stored in a disk file. (Ref. 7)

screen font: A font designed for screen display and for printing by an ImageWriter or LaserWriter IISC. (Ref. 7) A bitmap screen representation of a PostScript font. (Ref. 20)

screen shot: A MacPaint document that is like a snapshot of your Macintosh screen. You make a screen shot by holding down the Command and Shift keys while pressing 3. (Ref. 5)

script: A series of commands written in HyperTalk and associated with a particular object. (Ref. 3) A list of instructions to be carried out; a procedure to be followed. (Ref. 26)

scroll: To move a document or directory in its window so that you can see a different part of it. You can also scroll the directory in some dialog boxes. (Ref. 1)

scroll arrow: An arrow on either end of a scroll bar. Clicking a scroll arrow moves the document or directory one line. Pressing a scroll arrow scrolls the document continuously. (Ref. 1)

scroll bar: A rectangular bar that may be along the right or bottom of a window. Clicking or dragging in the scroll bar causes the view of the document to change. (Ref. 1)

scroll box: The white box in a scroll bar. The position of the scroll box in the scroll bar indicates the position of what’s in the window relative to the entire document. (Ref. 1)

SCSI: An acronym for Small Computer System Interface. An industry standard interface (mechanical, electrical, and functional) that provides high-speed access between peripheral devices (such as hard disks, printers, and optical disks) and small computers. Pronounced “Scuzzy.” Up to seven additional SCSI devices can be connected to a Mac in a chain, from one device to the next. (Refs. 1, 2 and 8)

SCSI bus: The bus which connects SCSI devices. (Ref. 9)

SCSI device: Any device that can be linked on the SCSI bus. Hard disks, printers, and optical disks are examples. (Ref. 9)

SCSI ID number (or address): A number assigned to each SCSI device connected to a computer. The device with the highest number has priority if a conflict occurs while sending or receiving data. Some devices, such as internal hard disks, have preset SCSI ID numbers. On others, such as external hard disks, you use a SCSI ID switch to set the ID number. Each SCSI device must have a unique address numbered between 0 and 7. (Refs. 5 and 8) (NOTE: The Macintosh always has a SCSI ID of 7.)

SCSI partition: See device partition. (Ref. 15)

SCSI port: The port on the back panel of the main unit that you connect SCSI devices to. A relatively high-speed bidirectional parallel port; most often used to connect a hard disk drive to a computer. (Refs. 1 and 7)

search path: The route the computer must follow to retrieve a file you ask for. (Ref. 3)

sector: The basic file storage unit of a disk; the smallest contiguous physical unit for recording information; several sectors make up a track. On an 800K floppy disk, one sector can store up to 512 bytes. (Refs. 6, 7 and 8)

sector copy: Making a duplicate of a disk by copying each sector of the disk. (Ref. 6)

sector reader: Software that can read and change disk sectors directly. (Ref. 7)

sector tag: Information stored with each sector that records which file a sector is associated with and the order of the sector within the file. Sector tags are critical for restoring deleted files and reconstructing files when disk directories have become damaged. (Ref. 6)

select: To designate where the next action will take place. To select, you click an icon or drag across information. (Ref. 2)

selection: The information affected by the next command. The selection is usually highlighted. (The insertion point is also a selection.) (Ref. 1)

sequential file: A disk file of data stored one byte after another. Sequential files can be accessed only in sequence, i.e., if you want the 135th record, you have to read records 1-134. (Ref. 13)

serial: A method of transmitting data one bit at a time. Compare with parallel. (Ref. 13)

serial hard disk: A hard disk connected via a serial port. (Ref. 9)

serial interface: An interface in which information is transmitted sequentially, a bit at a time, over a single wire or channel. Compare with parallel interface. (Ref. 1)

serial port: The connector on the back panel of the main unit for devices that use a serial interface. (Ref. 1) An electrical connection to a computer through which data are transmitted in series, one bit after another; specifically, an RS-232C or RS-422 port and, in the Macintosh, the printer and modem ports. (Ref. 7)

serif: Short, usually horizontal, marks that appear on letters in some fonts that most people believe make those letters easier to read. (Ref. 13)

server: In a network, any device that can be shared by all users. (Ref. 7)

setup string: A group of characters that sends a format command to a printer. Some application programs, such as spreadsheets, give you the option of changing format, such as character width, by entering a setup string before printing. (Ref. 4)

SFGet Box: The standard dialog box that allows Mac users to select files or programs to open from a list, such as the “Open…” box found in most programs. (Ref. 8)

shareware: Programs distributed usually through user groups and similar non-commercial channels with the expectation that if the user uses the program beyond a brief trial period, the user will pay the author the requested fee. (Ref. 13)

shielded cable: A cable with a special metallic wrapping around its wires. This wrapping reduces radio frequency interference. (Ref. 4)

Shift-click: A technique that lets you extend or shorten a selection by holding down the Shift key while you select (or deselect) something related to the current selection. (Ref. 1)

Shift-drag: A technique that allows you to select multiple objects by holding down the Shift key while you drag diagonally to enclose the objects in a rectangle. (Ref. 25)

Shift key: A key that, when pressed, causes subsequently typed letters to appear in uppercase and causes the upper symbol to appear when number or symbol keys are typed. (Ref. 1)

Shut Down: Command on the Finder’s Special menu that prepares your Macintosh to be turned off. (Ref. 14)

SIG: An acronym for Special Interest Group. A group of people within a user group whose interests focus on a particular subject. (Ref. 13) Part of a larger organization like a user group. (Ref. 22)

signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N): The ratio of the voltage of a received electric signal to the voltage of the interfering noise; usually given in decibels. (Ref. 7)

signature: A four-character code with which the Finder identifies an application. (Ref. 9)

SIMM: An acronym for Single Inline Memory Module. A package of memory chips that plugs into a Mac or other computer peripheral to increase memory size. (Ref. 9)

simplex: In telecommunication, allowing one-way transmission only, as in ordinary radio or television broadcasting. (Ref. 7)

Single Inline Memory Module: See SIMM.

SIP: An acronym for Single Inline Package. Refers to ICs and other parts with one (a single) line of pins. (Ref.10)

size box: A box on the bottom-right corner of most active windows that lets you resize the window. (Ref. 1)

slot: A socket on a computer’s main circuit board in which the user can plug cards. (Ref. 13)

Small Computer System Interface: See SCSI.

smart device: A modem or terminal is considered “smart” if it has its own circuitry to respond to or control other devices. (Ref. 29)

SMD: An acronym for Surface Mount Device. (Ref. 10)

SMPTE: An acronym for Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. The term (pronounced SIMP-ty) is also used to describe the timing standard that SMPTE adopted to synchronize video playback devices, tape decks, and other equipment used in creating movies or video productions. (Ref. 24)

SNA: An acronym for System Network Architecture. IBM’s umbrella term for a wide range of protocols and standards for computer communications. (Ref. 7)

socket: In the AppleTalk network, a logical concept that routes data coming into a node to the correct application program, distinguishing an electronic mail program from a database, for example. (Ref. 7)

soft partition: See volume partition. (Ref. 15)

software: Programs, or instructions, for the computer to carry out. The computer reads these instructions from disks inserted into the disk drive or from a hard disk. Software includes applications like word processing programs and programs that control the activities of the computer and its peripherals. (Refs. 1 and 4)

source: (adj.) Describes files that are being copied or translated as well as the disk or folder containing source files. (Ref. 5)

source code or program: The original instructions (usually written in a high-level programming language) that an interpreter or compiler turns into machine code for execution on a computer. (Ref. 7)

space parity: A method of parity error checking in which the parity bit is always set to 0. See also parity. (Ref. 29)

Special Interest Group: See SIG.

spliced application: An application too large for a single floppy disk, it is spread across several floppy disks for later installation on a hard disk. Usually one of the disks contains an installation program. (Ref. 9)

spool: When transmitting a file to another device or computer, the ability to place that file in a temporary area until it can be processed by I/O. (Ref. 29)

spooler: A software routine that permits transmitted documents to be queued up in a temporary file and returns the control of the computer to the user. The spooler continues to work in the background, transmitting the document to external destination. (Ref. 29)

spool folder: A folder created on a disk by a printer spooler for storing print files during processing and printing. (Ref. 8)

spreadsheet: An application program used for financial planning, cost estimates, and other number-crunching tasks. The user specifies interrelationships among the values, and the program can calculate results based on these relationships. In a spreadsheet, information is laid out in columns and rows. (Refs. 4 and 7)

Standard Apple Numeric Environment: See SANE.

Standard File Box: A general name for SFGet and SFPut boxes. (Ref. 8)

start bit: In serial data transmission, the one bit preceding a data byte that indicates the beginning of a character. (Ref. 4)

startup disk: Any disk that contains the system files the computer needs to get itself started. A startup disk must have at least a Finder and a System file. It may also contain other files such as printing resources, Scrapbook, and Clipboard. Ref. 1)

startup document: See INIT. (Ref. 14)

startup program: A program that is run automatically when the computer is started. (Ref. 13)

stop bit: In serial data transmission, the one or two bits preceding a data byte that indicate the end of a character. (Ref. 4)

storage device: Device that store data. e.g. hard disks, floppies, and optical disks. (Ref. 9)

string: Any specified sequence of characters — a word, a phrase, a number, whatever. The term is usually used in the context of searching and replacing. For example: type in the string you want to find, hit the tab key, then type in the string you want to replace it with. (Ref. 22)

strip 8th bit: When transmitting or receiving 8-bit data, the 8th bit is set to 0. This option is used primarily for systems that limit themselves to the 7-bit ASCII standard. (Ref. 29)

structured data program: Any application program that stores information in a regular, defined way. A spreadsheet is a structured data program; a word processor or free-form graphics program is not. (Ref. 7)

Style: A member of a group of related typefaces known as a family. Roman, Bold, Italic, and Bold Italic are all styles of the Times family. Also refers to settings which can be used with fonts on the Macintosh, such as outline, underline and shadow. (Ref. 19)

subdirectory: A subgroup of files grouped together inside a directory of files. On the Macintosh under HFS, subdirectories are known as folders. (Ref. 8)

surge suppressor: A device that plugs into an electric power circuit between the electric outlet and the computer; the surge suppressor absorbs unusually high levels of electric power without passing them onto the computer, where they could do damage. Surge suppressors are sometimes also part of a power strip. (Ref. 13)

SYLK: An acronym for SYmbolic LinK. The file format developed by Microsoft for business applications such as spreadsheets and databases; used for transferring data between otherwise incompatible programs. (Ref. 7)

synchronous: Transmission of data in which bits, characters or units of data are transmitted at constant time intervals. (Ref. 29) See also asynchronous.

synchronous communication: A means of transmitting data between computers in blocks of many characters, with a timing (synchronizing) signal at the beginning of each block instead of start and stop signals for each character. See also asynchronous communication. (Ref. 7)

syntax: The rules of a programming language that specify how the language symbols can be put together to form meaningful statements. If a program violates the language syntax rules, a syntax error occurs. (Ref. 11)

syntax error: A type of error in a computer program (particularly one written in BASIC) that indicates that the statement the computer tried to execute has a problem with its syntax, i.e., it is not a valid instruction in that language. (Ref. 13)

system (attribute bit): Set for system files. Prevents the file from being renamed and also issues a warning when you try to throw a System file in the Trash. See attribute bits. (Ref. 6)

system disk: In the Macintosh, any disk containing the System file that can be used to start the computer. (Ref. 7)

System file: A file the computer uses to start itself or to provide system-wide information. Although system files are represented by icons just as documents and applications are, they can’t be opened in the usual way. You can, however, alter the contents of system files. For example, you can use the Font/DA Mover to change the contents of the System file or change the contents of the Scrapbook or Note Pad files by using those desk accessories. See also startup disk. (Ref. 1)

System Folder: A folder containing the System file plus other important programs for controlling the Macintosh and its peripheral devices. (Ref. 5)

system heap: An area of memory used to store system information about desk accessories, fonts, INIT files, and so forth. (Ref. 14) Compare with heap.

System Network Architecture: See SNA.

system software: The set of files and resources in the System Folder that the computer uses to run itself. (Ref. 1)

System Tools disk: A disk that comes packaged with the Macintosh. The System Tools disk contains important utilities and resources that you can use to maintain and update your computer system and application disks. (Ref. 1)

tab: An ASCII character that commands a device, such as a printer, to begin printing at a preset location. Similar to a typewriter tab. (Ref. 4) The character that creates space between the place where you press the Tab key and the position of the tab marker. (Ref. 28)

tab-delimited file: A data file in which tabs separate data elements. (Ref. 7)

Tab key: A key that, when pressed, moves the insertion point to the next tab marker or, in a dialog box with more than one place to enter information, to the next text box. (Ref. 1)

tab marker: A ruler control that marks the position to which the insertion point will move when the Tab key is pressed. To set a tab, drag a tab marker from the tab well and position it at the desired location on the ruler. (Ref. 28) Depending upon the capabilities of the application, tab markers may align the left edge, the right edge, a decimal point, or the center of the tabbed text.

tab well: The source of left edge, right edge, centering, and decimal tab markers. (Ref. 28)

target device: The device on the SCSI daisychain that receives requests from the initiator to carry out an operation. (Ref. 9)

TeachText: An application on the System Tools disk that lets you read “Read Me” documents. (Ref. 1)

tear-off menu: A menu that can be converted to a movable window by dragging the pointer beyond its edge. (Ref. 29)

tech notes: An abbreviation for “Technical Notes.” Short reference papers, usually intended for programmers and developers, that deal with how to solve a particular programming problem or how to use a particular feature or command. (Ref. 13)

telecommunication: Communication over a distance by electronic means. (Ref. 29)

Telex: A limited worldwide commercial teletypewriter communication service owned and operated by Western Union. (Ref. 29)

template: A set of formulas and relationships used to program a spreadsheet or similar application to fulfill a particular function, such as computing income tax returns or home mortgage payments. (Ref. 13)

terminal: An I/O device for communication between a user and a computer. (Ref. 12) A device that allows a user to access a computer, usually a mainframe or minicomputer. Sometimes called “dumb” terminals to distinguish them from “smart” terminals, i.e., microcomputers. (Ref. 13)

Terminator: A physical device used to signify the ends of a chain of SCSI devices. The first and last SCSI devices connected to a Mac in a chain must each have a terminator. (Ref. 8) The Macintosh itself does not count as an “end,” however. If you have one SCSI device (not including the Macintosh), it should be terminated. If you have two or more SCSI devices, two should by terminated. (Ref. 23)

Text: Information presented in the form of alphabetic, numeric, and punctuation characters. Compare with graphics. (Ref. 4)

text box: The place or places in any dialog box where you can type information. (Ref. 1)

text file: A file that contains information stored in the form of readable characters. On the Macintosh, they are known as text-only documents. On the Apple II, they are called TXT files. (Ref. 5)

text insertion point: The blinking vertical line that shows where the next character will appear when typed. (Ref. 29)

text-only document: A document that contains the words that you have written but no formatting. It has the Type code TEXT and has the property that it can be opened by many different applications, not just the one that created it. (Ref. 6)

TEXT: The Type code that designates a text-only document that can be used by many different applications, not just the one that created them. This is possible because they have a standard format which includes carriage returns and tabs as well as the words you have generated. (Ref. 6)

thermal-transfer printer: A dot-matrix printer that uses small heated pins to melt small dots of pigment onto paper. (Ref. 7)

3.5-inch disk: A flexible, plastic disk measuring 3.5 inches in diameter and having a hard-shell plastic jacket. Double-sided 3.5-inch disks can store almost six times more data than single-sided 5.25-inch disks. (Ref. 25)

TIFF: An acronym for Tagged Image File Format. A standard graphics format for high-resolution (greater than 72-dpi) bit-mapped images, like those generated by most scanners. Compare with EPS, MacPaint, and PICT. (Ref. 22)

timesharing: A method in which a computer is shared by many users at what appears to be the same time. The computer actually serves each user in sequence, but the high speed of the computer makes it appear as if all the users were being handled simultaneously. (Ref. 29)

title bar: The horizontal bar at the top of a window that shows the name of the window’s contents and lets you move the window. (Ref. 1)

toner: The black plastic powder that functions as ink in photocopiers and laser printers. (Ref. 7)

Toolbox: The software in the ROM whose purpose is to present the user interface of an application. (Ref. 9)

TOPS: An acronym for Transcendental OPeration System. Using the LocalTalk network, it allows Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers to communicate. (Ref. 14)

touch pad: A computer pointing device that is operated by moving one’s finger over a flat surface. (Ref. 7)

touch screen: A computer screen that allows the user to point at objects by touching the screen. (Ref. 7)

track: A path on magnetic media for information storage. On a disk, tracks are concentric circles on the surface, made up of sectors; one or more tracks make up a cylinder. (Ref. 7)

transfer speed: The rate at which data can be carried between devices. (Ref. 9)

translation menu: A menu, such as “Mac to MS-DOS” or “Mac to Mac,” that appears when two disks are shown in the Apple File Exchange window. (Ref. 5)

translator: The information that the Apple File Exchange utility needs to translate a document created with an application on one operating system into a document that can be used with a similar application on another operating system. (Ref. 5)

translator file: A file containing one or more Apple File Exchange translators. (Ref. 5)

Trash: An icon on the desktop that you use to discard documents, folders, and applications. (Ref. 1)

Trojan Horse: A type of rogue software that pretends to be a useful application but actually carries a virus. (Ref. 9) A seemingly innocuous program with a hidden purpose. The Trojan Horse presents itself as a useful, normal application. But once resident on your system, hidden routines are unleashed to inflict damage. (Ref. 14)

Troubleshoot: To locate and correct an error or the cause of a problem or malfunction in hardware or software. (Ref. 25)

TTL: An acronym for Transistor-Transistor Logic. A standard way that ICs communicate with each other using defined voltages to represent the binary values 0 and 1. (Ref. 13)

TTY: Originally an abbreviation for Teletypewriter. The original teletypewriters consisted of a keyboard, a noisy printer, and reams of paper. Now TTY refers to terminals that follow the same communications protocols as the original teletypewriters. (Ref. 29)

tutorial: A class that offers hands-on instruction to a small group. (Ref. 13)

type: A four-character identifier associated with each file on the Macintosh that tells applications whether the file is, for example, a text-only file or a specially formatted file containing codes for formatting text by a word processing application. Text files have a type of, logically, “TEXT” whereas MacWrite files have a type of “WORD.” (Microsoft Word files have a type of “WDBN”.) Applications themselves have a type of “APPL.” Compare with creator. (Ref. 13)

Type code: The four-letter identification that is used to distinguish between different kinds of documents created by the same application. It identifies the nature of the information within the file. TEXT is the Type code used by all text-only documents. (Ref. 6)

typeface: A particular family and style of type. Refers to the visual appearance of the type. (Ref. 19)

undelete a file: Restore a file that has been thrown in the Trash (deleted). If none of the sectors of the file have been used by other files, it may be possible to recover the file. (Ref. 6)

uninterruptable power supply: See UPS.

UNIX: A popular operating system developed by AT&T and used primarily by academic and research institutions. (Ref. 29)

unreadable disks: Disks that cannot be read by the Macintosh. There are two possible reasons for this: 1) the disk is a new uninitialized blank disk, or 2) the disk contains one or more bad sectors. (Ref. 6)

Update Folder: A folder on the System Tools disk, and on other applications and system disks, that contains Read Me documents. (Ref. 1)

upgrade: Replacement of hardware or software with a new version. Upgrades are usually offered to owners of a product at a price below the list price of the new product. (Ref. 13)

upload: To transfer a computer program from your personal computer to a host computer, usually a mainframe, usually over telephone lines using a modem. Compare with download. (Ref. 13)

UPS: An acronym for Uninterruptable Power Supply. A power system that protects against power failures by operating continuously from a rechargeable battery. (Ref. 7)

user interface: The way a computer communicates, with dialog boxes, icons, etc. (Ref. 9) The system a computer program provides to communicate with you as a user. (Ref. 24)

users group: A computer club where computer users exchange tips and information, usually about a particular brand of computer. (Ref. 1)

Utilities disk: A disk that comes packaged with the Macintosh. The Utilities disk contains important utilities that you can use to maintain your computer system and application disks. The utilities on the Utilities disk are explained in the Macintosh Utilities User’s Guide. (Ref. 1)

utility program: A special-purpose application that alters a system file or lets you perform some useful function on your files. Examples are the Font/DA Mover and the Installer. (Ref. 1) A program that does not generate a document but instead performs service-oriented tasks, like spell-checking or screen color customization. (Ref. 9) A program that performs a standardized housekeeping task, such as installing fonts or copying files, in contrast to personal productivity software such as a spreadsheet or database. (Ref. 13)

V.22 bis: Modem protocol (data-link layer) for 2400-bits-per-second transmission over telephone lines; set by the CCITT. V.22 is a 1200-bps standard; the word bis is French for a second time. (Ref. 7)

vaccine: A program that is meant to provide virus protection. (Ref. 14)

vaporware: Software that was announced a while ago but still hasn’t shipped. (Ref. 22)

variable: (1) A location in the computer’s memory where a value can be stored. (2) The symbol used in a program to represent such a location. Compare with constant. (Ref. 13)

VAX: A family of computers that are based on a 32-bit processing architecture made by Digital Equipment Corporation. VAX stands for Virtual Address Extension. (Ref. 29)

verify a disk: To check each sector on a disk for flipped bits. (Ref. 6)

view format: The various ways of seeing files and folders on the desktop. The Mac offers seven view formats: by icon, small icon, name, date, size, kind, and color. (Ref. 9)

viral resources: A resource that belongs to a virus. (Ref. 14)

virus: A program which can “infect” (modify) system files or other programs, causing them to automatically make copies of the virus. Viruses are designed to surreptitiously alter the Macintosh’s behavior — the effect may range from an amusing prank to malicious sabotage. (Ref. 6) A program designed to infect and modify data, altering your Macintosh’s behavior, and often meant for destruction. (Ref. 14)

virus inhibitors: One or more resources added to a file that prevents infection by a specific, known virus. (Ref. 14)

VMS: An operating system that runs on all VAX computers. VMS stands for Virtual Memory System. (Ref. 29)

volume: A general term referring to a storage device; a source of or a destination for information. Each mounted volume appears as an icon on the desktop. (Refs. 2 and 9) A storage unit such as a particular disk (a so-called “physical volume”) or a portion of a disk (a “logical volume”). (Ref. 13)

volume directory: Part of the general “diskkeeping” information on every disk. Contains information about both the specific disk and also about the location of files on the disk. Damage to the Volume Directory affects your ability to use both the disk and specific files on it. (Ref. 6)

volume parameter: A directory of information regarding your hard disk; examples include size, drivers, etc. (Ref. 15)

volume partition: A segment of a larger volume that is created with a special application and can only be accessed using the same application. (Ref. 14)

volunteer: HMUG’s most treasured asset. Please become one.

VT52: A terminal manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation before the development of the ANSI terminal. (Ref. 29)

VT100: A terminal manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation that complies with the ANSI standard terminal. It is very popular and relatively easy to emulate with software. (Ref. 29)

VT102: A terminal manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation that incorporates all the features of VT100 and recognizes some additional commands as well. (Ref. 29)

wait cursor: Usually a wristwatch but sometimes a spinning beachball, it tells the user to wait while the Macintosh completes a task. (Ref. 9)

warm boot: The process of resetting a computer to its start-up state without shutting off the power. (Ref. 7)

wide area network: A communication pathway linking computers and accessory devices over cross-continental distances, for example, the Department of Defense’s ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). See also network and local area network (LAN). (Ref. 7)

widow: In word processing and typography, a condition when the first line of a paragraph appears at the bottom of a page. Compare with orphan. (Ref. 27)

Winchester drive: The standard hard disk drive, with read/write heads, platters, a fan, and a hermetically sealed case. (Ref. 9)

window: The area that displays information on the desktop. Disks and folder icons open into windows; you view documents through a window. You can open or close a window, move it around on the desktop, and sometimes change its size, edit its contents, and scroll through it. (Refs. 1 and 9)

word wraparound: The automatic continuation of text from the end of one line to the beginning of the next. Word wraparound lets you avoid pressing the Return key at the end of each line as you type. (Ref. 1)

working memory: See random-access memory (RAM). (Ref. 4)

Worm: A malicious program, which once resident on your system, inflicts damage by “burrowing” through your files to corrupt data. (Ref. 14)

WORM drive: WORM is an acronym for Write-Once Read-Many. An optical mass storage device, it is used only for storing large amounts of data. Files are inscribed with a high-intensity laser and read with another, weaker laser beam. (Ref. 9)

wristwatch: The pointer’s icon that you see on the screen when the computer is performing an action that causes you to wait. (Ref. 1)

write: To transfer information from the computer to an external device such as a disk, printer, or modem. Compare with read. (Ref. 13)

write-protect: To alter a disk in such a way that you cannot write data onto the disk. (Ref. 13)

write-protect tab: The small shutter in the upper left-hand corner (backside) of Macintosh floppy disks. When the tab is pushed up to reveal a square opening, the disk’s contents can be read but not deleted or added to. Pushing the tab down will restore the floppy for normal writing functions. (Ref. 9)

x-height: The average height of lowercase letters, excluding ascenders. (Ref. 18)

XMODEM: A protocol devised by Ward Christiansen for sending data across a serial communications link in a way that corrects for errors in transmission due to noisy telephone lines or other reasons. In XMODEM, data are sent in 128-byte blocks, and after each block is sent, the receiving computer sends a character to acknowledge that the block was received correctly or a different character to indicate that the block has to be re-sent. (Ref. 13) A file transfer protocol that includes automatic error checking and error correction during the file transfer. (Ref. 29)

XON/XOFF: A communications protocol that tells the computer to start or stop sending data by sending the appropriate character: either an XON or XOFF. The ImageWriter II sends an XOFF when its input buffer is nearly full and an XON when it has room for more data. Compare with hardware handshake. (Ref. 4) A protocol for sending data across a serial communication link in which the flow of data can be stopped by the receiving system by sending a Control-S character, which is called X-Off. This allows the receiving system time to save data to disk or to print it on paper. When the receiving system is ready for the flow of data to resume, it sends a Control-Q character, called X-On. While X-On/X-Off normally prevents the receiving computer from losing characters due to the fact that the receiving system may be slower than the transmitting system, it does not correct for errors in transmission. Compare with XMODEM. (Ref. 13)

XOR: An abbreviation for eXclusive-OR, a logical operation that is true, i.e., 1, if and only if one of two values is true and the other is false. Thus,

1 XOR 1 = 0 (both can’t be true)

1 XOR 0 = 1

0 XOR 1 = 1

0 XOR 0 = 0 (both can’t be false) (Ref. 13)

YMODEM: A file transfer protocol that is an extension of XMODEM. YMODEM adds the ability to send multiple files and include the name and size of a file along with the file. (Ref. 29)

YMODEM-G: A variant of the YMODEM file transfer protocol that does not wait for positive acknowledgement after each block is sent, but rather sends blocks in rapid succession. If any block is unsuccessfully transferred, the entire transfer is canceled. YMODEM-G is faster than YMODEM but only suitable for error-free connections. (Ref. 29)

ZMODEM: Like YMODEM-G, ZMODEM does not wait for positive acknowledgment before sending each block. But unlike YMODEM-G, ZMODEM retransmits unsuccessful packets. If a ZMODEM transfer is canceled or interrupted for any reason, the transfer can be resurrected later and the previously transferred information need not be resent. ZMODEM is considered one of the most advanced transfer protocols available. (Ref. 29)

zoom box: The small box on the right side of the title bar of some windows. Clicking the zoom box expands a window to its maximum size. Clicking again returns the window to its original size. (Ref. 1)

zone: A network in a series of interconnected networks, joined through bridges. (Ref. 1)


1. Macintosh Plus Owner’s Guide (1987)

2. Macintosh Utilities User’s Guide (1987)

3. HyperCard User’s Guide (1987)

4. ImageWriter II Owner’s Manual (1985)

5. Macintosh Utilities User’s Guide (1988)

6. The 1st Aid Kit (1989)

7. The Apple Macintosh Book, 3rd Edition (1988)

8. Macintosh Hard Disk Management (1988)

9. Understanding Hard Disk Management on the Macintosh (1989)

10. Macintosh Repair and Upgrade Secrets (1990)

11. Turbo Pascal for the Mac (1986)

12. Turbo Pascal Tutor (1987)

13. Washington Apple Pi Member Reference Book (1987)

14. Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM) (1989-1990)

15. Symantec Utilities for Macintosh (SUM II) (1989)

16. WriteNow for Macintosh, 2.2 (1989, 1990)

17. Springboard Publisher II (1989)

18. Adobe Type Library (1987)

19. TypeAlign User’s Guide (1989)

20. TypeStyler User’s Guide (1989)

21. The Macintosh Font Book (1989)

22. The Macintosh Bible, 2nd edition (1988-89)

23. Jasmine Hard Disk Encyclopedia (1988)

24. Music Through MIDI (1987)

25. QuicKeys User’s Manual (1987)

26. Jasmine DriveTools Owner’s Guide (1988)

27. Macworld (Nov. 1988, p. 131)

28. MindWrite (1986, 1987, 1988)

29. Microphone II User’s Guide (1985-1990)